The applicability of C-14 measurements in the soil gas for the assessment of leakage out of underground carbon dioxide reservoirs
Languages of publication
Poland, due to the ratification of the Kioto Protocol, is obliged to diminish the emission of greenhouse gases. One of the possible solutions of this problem is CO2 sequestration (CCS - carbon capture and storage). Such an option is a priority in the European Union. On the other hand, CO2 sequestration may be potentially risky in the case of gas leakage from underground reservoirs. The most dangerous event may be a sudden release of the gas onto the surface. Therefore, it is very important to know if there is any escape of CO2 from underground gas reservoirs, created as a result of sequestration. Such information is crucial to ensure safety of the population in areas located above geological reservoirs. It is possible to assess the origin of carbon dioxide, if the measurement of radiocarbon 14C concentration in this gas is done. If CO2 contains no 14C, it means, that the origin of the gas is either geological or the gas has been produced as a result of combustion of fossil fuels, like coal. A lot of efforts are focused on the development of monitoring methods to ensure safety of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. A radiometric method has been tested for such a purpose. The main goal of the investigations was to check the application possibility of such a method. The technique is based on the liquid scintillation counting of samples. The gas sample is at first bubbled through the carbon dioxide adsorbent, afterwards the adsorbent is mixed with a dedicated cocktail and measured in a low-background liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus. The described method enables measurements of 14C in mine and soil gas samples.
1 - 03 - 2014
25 - 03 - 2014
- Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Central Mining Institute, 1 Gwarków Sq., 40-166 Katowice, Poland, Tel.: +48 32 259 2815, Fax: +48 32 259 2295, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Central Mining Institute, 1 Gwarków Sq., 40-166 Katowice, Poland, Tel.: +48 32 259 2815, Fax: +48 32 259 2295
- 1. Environmental radionuclides: tracers and timers of terrestrial processes. (2010). K. Froelich (Ed.), Radioactivity in the environment (Vol. 16), Series editor M. S. Baxter. Vienna: Elsevier.
- 2. Stańczyk, K., Howaniec, N., Smolinski, N., Świądrowski, J., Kapusta, K., Wiatowski, M., Grabowski, J., & Rogut, J. (2011). Gasification of lignite and hard coal with air and oxygen-enriched air in a pilot scale ex-situ reactor for underground gasification. Fuel, 90(5), 1953-1962.[Crossref]
- 3. Michczyńska, D. J., Michczyński, A., & Pazdur, A. (2007).Frequency distribution of radiocarbon dates as a tool for reconstructing environmental changes. Radiocarbon, 49(2), 799-806.
- 4. Hendriks, C., Graus, W., & Van Bergen, F. (Eds.). (2004).Global carbon dioxide storage potential and costs. Utrecht: Ecofys and TNO.
- 5. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2005).IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. B. Metz, O. Davidson, H. C. de Coninck, M. Loos, & L. A. Meyer (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srccs/srccs_wholereport.pdf.
- 6. Tarkowski, R. (2005). Geological sequestration of CO2.Kraków: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energią PAN. (in Polish).
- 7. Krzystolik, P., Skiba, J., & Jura, B. (2005). Monitoring of the parameters during sequestration of CO2 to the coal seams in the RECOPOL project (Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland). In Procedings of the 20th World Mining Congress (ICAMC session), 23 October - 8 November 2005 (pp. 955-962). Tehran, Iran.
- 8. Culp, R., & Noakes, J. (2009). Evaluation of bio-based content ASTM Method 6866-06A: Improvements revealed by liquid scintillation counting, accelerator mass spectrometry and stable isotopes for products containing inorganic carbon. In J. Eikenberg, M. Jäaggi, H. Beer, & H. Baehrle (Eds.), LSC 2008 International Conference on Advances in Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry (pp. 269-278). Tucson, Arizona: Radiocarbon.
- 9. Edler, R. (2009). The use of LSC technology for the determination of biogenic materials. In J. Eikenberg, M. Jäggi, H. Beer, & H. Baehrle (Eds.), LSC 2008 International Conference on Advances in Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry (pp. 261-267). Tucson, Arizona: Radiocarbon.
- 10. Molnar, M., Nagy, S., Svingor, E. & Svetlik, I. (2005). Refining the CO2 absorption method for low-level 14C liquid scintillation counting in the Atomki. In S. Chałupnik, F. Schoenhofer, & J. Noakes (Eds). LSC 2005 International Conference on Advances in Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry (pp. 407-415). Tucson, Arizona: Radiocarbon.
- 11. Vartti, V. P. (2009). Optimizing the counting conditions for Carbon-14 for sample oxidizer-liquid scintillation counting method. In J. Eikenberg, M. Jäggi, H. Beer, & H. Baehrle (Eds.). LSC 2008 International Conference on Advances in Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry (pp. 293-298). Tucson, Arizona: Radiocarbon.
- 12. Libby, W. F. (1952). Radiocarbon dating. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- 13. Walanus, A., & Goslar, T. (2009). Radiocarbon dating. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej. (in Polish).
Publication order reference