Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 2 | 1 |

Article title

Fabrication and Characterization of Three
Dimensional Electrospun Cortical Bone Scaffolds


Title variants

Languages of publication



Bone is a composite tissue composed of an
organic matrix, inorganic mineral matrix and water.
Structurally, bone is organized into two distinct types:
trabecular (or cancellous) and cortical (or compact) bone.
Cortical bone is highly organized, dense and composed of
tightly packed units or osteons whereas trabecular bone
is highly porous and usually found within the confines
of cortical bone. Osteons, the subunits of cortical bone,
consist of concentric layers of mineralized collagen
fibers. While many scaffold fabrication techniques have
sought to replicate the structure and organization of
trabecular bone, very little research focuses on mimicking
the organization of native cortical bone. In this study
we fabricated three-dimensional electrospun cortical
scaffolds by heat sintering individual osteon-like scaffolds.
The scaffolds contained a system of channels running
parallel to the length of the scaffolds, as found naturally
in the haversian systems of bone tissue. The purpose
of the studies discussed in this paper was to develop a
mechanically enhanced biomimetic electrospun cortical
scaffold. To that end we investigated the appropriate
mineralization and cross-linking methods for these
structures and to evaluate the mechanical properties
of scaffolds with varying fiber angles. Cross-linking the
gelatin in the scaffolds prior to the mineralization of the scaffolds proved to help prevent channels of the osteons
from collapsing during fabrication. Premineralization,
before larger scaffold formation and mineralization,
increased mineral deposition between the electrospun
layers of the scaffolds. A combination of cross-linking and
premineralization significantly increased the compressive
moduli of the individual scaffolds. Furthermore, scaffolds
with fibers orientation ranging between 15° and 45° yielded
the highest compressive moduli and yield strength.







Physical description


12 - 11 - 2014
15 - 4 - 2014
17 - 2 - 2014


  • Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
    School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Blacksburg, VA,
    USA 24061
  • Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
    School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Blacksburg, VA,
    USA 24061
  • University of Virginia, Department of Biomedical
    Engineering, Charlottesville, VA
  • Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University,
    School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Blacksburg, VA,
    USA 24061
  • Virginia Tech, Material Science and Engineering,
    Blacksburg, VA
  • Virginia Tech, Department of Chemical Engineering,
    Blacksburg, VA
  • Rutgers University,
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Piscataway, NJ
  • Dominion University School of Medical Diagnostic & Translational
    Sciences, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA


  • [1] Chen, J.; Chu, B.; Hsiao, B. S., Mineralization of hydroxyapatitein electrospun nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds. JBiomed Mater Res A 2006, 79 (2), 307-17.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [2] An, Y. H.; Woolf, S. K.; Friedman, R. J., Pre-clinical in vivoevaluation of orthopaedic bioabsorbable devices. Biomaterials2000, 21 (24), 2635-52.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [3] Ritchie, R. O., How does human bone resist fracture? Ann N YAcad Sci 2010, 1192 (1), 72-80[Crossref]
  • [4] Rho, J. Y.; Kuhn-Spearing, L.; Zioupos, P., Mechanical propertiesand the hierarchical structure of bone. Med Eng Phys 1998, 20(2), 92-102[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [5] Beniash, Elia. “Biominerals-hierarchical nanocomposites:the example of bone.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews:Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, 2011, 3 (1), 47-69[PubMed]
  • [6] Cowin, S. C.; Doty, S. B., Tissue mechanics. Springer: New York,NY, 2007; p xvi, 682 p.
  • [7] Borden, M.; El-Amin, S. F.; Attawia, M.; Laurencin, C. T.,Structural and human cellular assessment of a novelmicrosphere-based tissue engineered scaffold for bone repair.Biomaterials 2003, 24 (4), 597-609[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [8] Borden, M.; Attawia, M.; Khan, Y.; Laurencin, C. T., Tissueengineered microsphere-based matrices for bone repair:design and evaluation. Biomaterials 2002, 23 (2), 551-9.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [9] Wei, G.; Ma, P. X., Structure and properties of nano-hydroxyapatite/polymer composite scaffolds for bone tissueengineering. Biomaterials 2004, 25 (19), 4749-57[Crossref][PubMed]
  • [10] Wang, X.; Song, G.; Lou, T., Fabrication and characterization ofnano composite scaffold of poly(L-lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite. JMater Sci Mater Med, 2009, 21(1), 183-8[PubMed]
  • [11] Ma, P. X.; Zhang, R., Microtubular architecture ofbiodegradable polymer scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res 2001, 56(4), 469-77.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • [12] Lu, L.; Peter, S. J.; Lyman, M. D.; Lai, H. L.; Leite, S. M.;Tamada, J. A.; Uyama, S.; Vacanti, J. P.; Langer, R.; Mikos, A.G., In vitro and in vivo degradation of porous poly(DL-lactic-coglycolicacid) foams. Biomaterials 2000, 21 (18), 1837-45[Crossref]
  • [13] Chen, V. J.; Ma, P. X., Nano-fibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffoldswith interconnected spherical macropores. Biomaterials 2004,25 (11), 2065-73.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [14] Yang, S.; Leong, K. F.; Du, Z.; Chua, C. K., The design ofscaffolds for use in tissue engineering. Part I. Traditionalfactors. Tissue Eng 2001, 7 (6), 679-89[Crossref][PubMed]
  • [15] Stevens, B.; Yang, Y.; Mohandas, A.; Stucker, B.; Nguyen, K.T., A review of materials, fabrication methods, and strategiesused to enhance bone regeneration in engineered bonetissues. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008, 85 (2),573-82[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
  • [16] Rezwan, K.; Chen, Q. Z.; Blaker, J. J.; Boccaccini, A. R.,Biodegradable and bioactive porous polymer/inorganiccomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials2006, 27 (18), 3413-31[PubMed][Crossref]
  • [17] Liu, X.; Ma, P. X., Polymeric scaffolds for bone tissueengineering. Ann Biomed Eng 2004, 32 (3), 477-86.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • [18] Andric, T.; Sampson, A. C.; Freeman, J. W., Fabrication andcharacterization of electrospun osteon mimicking scaffoldsfor bone tissue engineering. Materials Science & EngineeringC-Materials for Biological Applications 2011, 31 (1), 2-8[Crossref]
  • [19] Wright, L. D.; Young, R. T.; Andric, T.; Freeman, J. W., Fabricationand mechanical characterization of 3D electrospun scaffoldsfor tissue engineering. Biomed Matre, 2010, 5(5), 055006[Crossref]
  • [20] Andric, T.; Wright, L. D.; Freeman, J. W., Rapid Mineralization ofElectrospun Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. J BiomaterSci Polym Ed, 2011, 22(11), 1535-1550[Crossref]
  • [21] Tas, A. C.; Bhaduri, S. B., Rapid coating of Ti6A14V at roomtemperature with a calcium phosphate solution similar to 10xsimulated body fluid. Journal of Materials Research 2004, 19(9), 2742-2749[Crossref]
  • [22] Heydarkhan-Hagvall, S.; Schenke-Layland, K.; Dhanasopon,A. P.; Rofail, F.; Smith, H.; Wu, B. M.; Shemin, R.; Beygui, R. E.;MacLellan, W. R., Three-dimensional electrospun ECM-basedhybrid scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering.Biomaterials 2008, 29 (19), 2907-14[Crossref]
  • [23] Sisson, K.; Zhang, C.; Farach-Carson, M. C.; Chase, D. B.;Rabolt, J. F., Fiber diameters control osteoblastic cell migrationand differentiation in electrospun gelatin. J Biomed Mater ResA, 2010, 94 (4), 1312-24[WoS][PubMed]
  • [24] Sisson, K.; Zhang, C.; Farach-Carson, M. C.; Chase, D.B.; Rabolt, J. F., Evaluation of cross-linking methods forelectrospun gelatin on cell growth and viability. Biomacromolecules2009, 10 (7), 1675-80[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.