Freestyle versus butterfly swimming performance – effects of age and sex
Languages of publication
Purpose. Recent studies have suggested that the age of peak freestyle swimming speed is reached earlier in life in women than in men. However, no study has investigated the age of peak swimming speed in other swimming styles such as butterfly. The aims of the present study were to investigate the age of peak swimming speed in elite male and female butterfly and freestyle swimmers at the national level (Switzerland) and the sex differences in both the age of peak swimming speed and swimming speed for both swimming styles. Methods. Results of the elite Swiss swimmers between 2006 and 2010 were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Results. In butterfly, women achieved peak swimming speed at 20-21 years in the 50 m, 100 m and 200 m, whereas men reached their fastest swimming speed in the 50 m at 20-21 years and in both the 100 m and 200 m at 18-19 years. In freestyle, women achieved peak swimming speed at 20-21 years for all distances. Men were the fastest at 22-23 years for both the 100 m and 200 m and at 26-27 years for the 50 m. In the butterfly, the sex difference in swimming speed was highest in the 50 m and lowest in the 200 m (14.1% ± 0.2 in the 50 m, 12.6% ± 1.0 in the 100 m and 8.7% ± 1.8 in the 200 m). Additionally, the sex difference in freestyle swimming speed was highest in the 50 m and lowest in the 200 m (16.2% ± 0.5 in the 50 m, 15.9% ± 0.4 in 100 m and 14.9% ± 1.0 in 200 m). Conclusions. These findings suggest that peak swimming speed was achieved earlier in life in men compared with women for the 100 m and 200 m butterfly distances but not in the 50 m butterfly. In freestyle, peak swimming speed was achieved at younger ages in women compared with men. The sex difference in peak swimming speed was lower in the butterfly than in freestyle.
1 - 3 - 2014
12 - 4 - 2014
- 1. Bongard V., McDermott A.Y., Dallal G.E., Schaefer E.J., Effects of age and sex on physical performance. Age (Dordr), 2007, 29 (2-3), 77-85, doi: 10.1007/s11357-007-9034-z[WoS][Crossref]
- 2. Donato A.J., Tench K., Glueck D.H., Seals D.R., Eskurza I., Tanaka. H., Declines in physiological functional capacity with age: a longitudinal study in peak swimming performance. J Appl Physiol, 2003, 94 (2), 764-769, doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00438.2002.[Crossref]
- 3. Tanaka H., Seals D.R., Age and sex interactions in physiological functional capacity: insight from swimming performance. J Appl Physiol, 1997, 82 (3), 846-851.
- 4. Berthelot G., Len S., Hellard P., Tafflet M., Guillaume M., Vollmer J.C. et al., Exponential growth combined with exponential decline explains lifetime performance evolution in individual and human species. Age (Dordr), 2012, 34 (4), 1001-1009, doi: 10.1007/s11357-011-9274-9.[Crossref][WoS]
- 5. Fairbrother J.T., Age-related changes in top-ten men’s U.S. Masters 50-m freestyle swim times as a function of finishing place. Percept Mot Skills, 2007, 105, (3f), 1289-1293, doi: 10.2466/pms.105.4.1289-1293.[Crossref]
- 6. Schulz R., Curnow C., Peak performance and age among superathletes: track and field, swimming, baseball, tennis, and golf. J Gerontol, 1988, 43 (5), 113-120, doi: 10.1093/geronj/43.5.P113.[Crossref]
- 7. Eichenberger E., Knechtle B., Knechtle P., Rust C.A., Rosemann T., Lepers R., No gender difference in peak performance in ultra-endurance swimming performance - Analysis of the ‘Zurich 12-h Swim’ from 1996 to 2010. Chin J Physiol 2012, 55, 346-351, doi: 10.4077/ CJP.2012.BAA053.
- 8. Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences, (accessed 2013-06-03), (www.samw.ch/en/Ethics/Guidelines/Currently-valid-guidelines.html)
- 9. Swiss Swimming Federation, (accessed 2013-06-03), (http://rankings.fsn.ch/).
- 10. Martin R.J., Dore E., Twisk J., van Praagh E., Hautier C.A., Bedu M., Longitudinal changes of maximal short-term peak power in girls and boys during growth. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2004, 36, (3), 498-503, doi: 10.1249/01. MSS.0000117162.20314.6B.[Crossref]
- 11. Wheeler M.D., Physical changes of puberty. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 1991, 20 (1), 1-14.
- 12. Magarey A.M., Boulton T.J., Chatterton B.E., Schultz C., Nordin B.E., Familial and environmental influences on bone growth from 11-17 years. Acta Paediatr, 1999, 88 (11), 1204-1210, doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1999.tb01018.x.[Crossref]
- 13. Bitar A., Vernet J., Coudert J., Vermorel M., Longitudinal changes in body composition, physical capacities and energy expenditure in boys and girls during the onset of puberty. Eur J Nutr, 2000, 39 (4), 157-163, doi: 10.1007/s003940070019.[Crossref]
- 14. Zuniga J., Housh T.J., Mielke M., Hendrix C.R., Camic C.L., Johnson G.O. et al., Gender comparisons of anthropometric characteristics of young sprint swimmers. J Strength Cond Res, 2011, 25 (1), 103-108, doi: 10.1519/ JSC.0b013e3181b62bf7.[WoS][Crossref]
- 15. Salselas V., Marquez S., Perceptions of the motivational climate created by parents of young Portuguese swimmers. Percept Mot Skills, 2009, 108 (3), 851-861, doi: 10.2466/ pms.108.3.851-861.[Crossref]
- 16. Shaw K.L., Ostrow A., Motivation and psychological skills in the senior athlete. Eur Rev Aging Phy Act, 2005, 2, 22-34.
- 17. McLean S.P., Hinrichs R.N., Sex differences in the centre of buoyancy location of competitive swimmers. J Sports Sci, 1998,16(4), 373-383, doi: 10.1080/02640419808559365.[Crossref]
- 18. Siders W.A., Lukaski H.C., Bolonchuk W.W., Relationships among swimming performance, body composition and somatotype in competitive collegiate swimmers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1993, 33 (2), 166-171.
- 19. Dore E., Martin R., Ratel S., Duche P., Bedu M., Van Praagh E., Sex differences in peak muscle performance during growth. Int J Sports Med, 2005, 26 (4), 274-280, doi: 10.1055/s-2004-821001.[Crossref]
- 20. Hubner-Woźniak E., Kosmol A., Lutoslawska G., Bem E.Z., Anaerobic performance of arms and legs in male and female free style wrestlers. J Sci Med Sport, 2004, 7 (4), 473-480, doi: 10.1016/S1440-2440(04)80266-4.[Crossref]
- 21. Nindl B.C., Mahar M.T., Harman E.A., Patton J.F., Lower and upper body anaerobic performance in male and female adolescent athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1995, 27 (2), 235-341.
- 22. Perez-Gomez J., Rodriguez G.V., Ara I., Olmedillas H., Chavarren J., Gonzalez-Henriquez J.J. et al., Role of muscle mass on sprint performance: gender differences? Eur J Appl Physiol, 2008, 102 (6), 685-694, doi: 10.1007/ s00421-007-0648-8.[Crossref]
- 23. Dore E., Diallo O., Franca N.M., Bedu M., Van Praagh E., Dimensional changes cannot account for all differences in short-term cycling power during growth. Int J Sports Med, 2000, 21 (5), 360-366, doi: 10.1055/s-2000-3783.[Crossref]
- 24. Seifert L., Boulesteix L., Chollet D., Effect of sex on the adaptation of arm coordination in front crawl. Int J Sports Med, 2004, 25 (3), 217-223, doi: 10.1080/0264041031 0001655787.[Crossref]
- 25. Eichenberger E., Knechtle B., Rust C.A., Rosemann T., Lepers R., Age and gender interactions in mountain ultra-marathon running - the ‘Swiss Alpine Marathon’. Open Access J Sports Med, 2012, 3, 73-80, doi: 10.2147/ OAJSM.S33836.[Crossref]
- 26. Eichenberger E., Knechtle B., Knechtle P., Rust C.A., Rosemann T., Lepers R., Best performances by men and women open-water swimmers during the ‘English Channel Swim’ from 1900 to 2010. J Sports Sci, 2012, 30, (12), 1295-1301, doi: 10.1080/02640414.2012.709264.[WoS][Crossref]
- 27. Knechtle B., Baumann B., Knechtle P., Rosemann T., Speed during training and anthropometric measures in relation to race performance by male and female open-water ultra-endurance swimmers. Percept Mot Skills, 2010, 111 (2), 463-474, doi: 10.2466/05.25.PMS.111.5.463-474.[Crossref]
- 28. Geladas N.D., Nassis G.P., Pavlicevic S., Somatic and physical traits affecting sprint swimming performance in young swimmers. Int J Sports Med, 2005, 26 (2), 139-144, doi: 10.1055/s-2004-817862.[Crossref]
- 29. Chollet D., Seifert L., Boulesteix L., Carter M., Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers. Int J Sports Med, 2006, 27 (4), 322-329, doi: 10.1055/s-2005-865658.[Crossref]
- 30. Takagi H., Sugimoto S., Nishijima N., Wilson B., Differences in stroke phases, arm-leg coordination and velocity fluctuation due to event, sex and performance level in breaststroke. Sports Biomech, 2004, 3 (1), 15-27, doi: 10.1080/14763140408522827.[Crossref]
- 31. Zamparo P., Gatta G., di Prampero P.E., The determinants of performance in master swimmers: an analysis of master world records. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2012, 112 (10), 3511-3518, doi: 10.1007/s00421-012-2332-x.[Crossref][WoS]
- 32. Coast J.R., Blevins J.S., Wilson B.A., Do gender differences in running performance disappear with distance? Can J Appl Physiol, 2004, 29 (2), 139-145, doi: 10.1139/h04-010.[Crossref]
- 33. Thibault V., Guillaume M., Berthelot G., El Helou N., Schaal K., Quinquis L. et al., Women and men in sport performance: the gender gap has not evolved since 1983. J Sports Sci Med, 2010, 9 (2), 214-223.
- 34. Federatione Internationale de Natation, (2013-06-03): www.fina.org/
- 35. International Association of Athletics Federations, (2013-06-03): www.iaaf.org/
- 36. Chatard J.C., Collomp C., Maglischo E., Maglischo C., Swimming skill and stroking characteristics of front crawl swimmers. Int J Sports Med, 1990, 11 (2), 156-161, doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1024782.[Crossref]
- 37. Strzała M., Krężałek P., Kaca M., Głąb G., Ostrowski A., Stanula A. et al., Swimming speed of the breaststroke kick. J Hum Kinet, 2012, 35, 133-139, doi: 10.2478/v10078-012-0087-4.[Crossref]
- 38. Simoes P., Vasconcelos-Raposo J., Silva A., Fernandes H.M., Effects of a process-oriented goal setting model on swimmer’s performance. J Hum Kinet, 2012, 32, 65-76, doi: 10.2478/v10078-012-0024-6.[Crossref]
- 39. Maughan R.J., Shirreffs S.M., Nutrition for sports performance: Issues and opportunities. Proc Nutr Soc, 2012, 71 (1), 112-119, doi: 10.1017/S0029665111003211.[Crossref][WoS]
- 40. Rodriguez N.R., Di Marco N.M., Langley S., American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2009, 41 (3), 709-731, doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31890eb86.[Crossref][WoS]
- 41. Miller J.W., Injuries and considerations in masters aquatics sports. Clin Sports Med, 1999, 18 (2), 413-426, doi: 10.1016/S0278-5919(05)70155-1.[Crossref]
Publication order reference