Changes in Breathing Pattern and Cycling Efficiency as a Result of Training with Added Respiratory Dead Space Volume
Languages of publication
Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of training with added respiratory dead space volume (ARDSV) on changes in a breathing pattern and cycling efficiency. Methods. Twenty road cyclists were equally divided into an experimental (E) and control (C) group. All of them were involved in a training program that included endurance training (at moderate intensity) and interval training (at maximal intensity). During semi-weekly endurance training, ARDSV (1000cm3 tube) was introduced in the experimental group. Respiratory parameters, including, among others, oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), tidal volume (TV) and total work done during the tests (W), were measured before and after the experiment by a progressive and continuous test. Results. Higher PETCO2 and TV in both groups during the progressive and continuous tests were observed. VCO2 increased in group E during continuous test, while for group C only in the first four minutes of the test. VO2 and VE increased only in group E during submaximal and maximal exercise. Total work increased during the continuous test in both groups (significantly higher in group C than E). However, total work during the progressive test increased only in group E. Conclusions. Training with ARDSV improved exercise capacity at maximal effort and was associated with an increase in maximal oxygen uptake. On the other hand, this type of training lead to a decrease in cycling efficiency, reducing in effect the benefits associated with an increase in VO2max and reducing the ability to perform submaximal effort.
1 - 09 - 2013
15 - 10 - 2013
- 1. Brown S.J., Cardio-respiratory system efficiency in trained endurance cyclists. Med Sportiva, 2010, 14 (4), 176-181.[Crossref]
- 2. Jones N.L., An obsession with CO2. Appl Physiol NutrMetab, 2008, 33 (4), 641-650, doi: 10.1139/H08-040.[Crossref]
- 3. Wyatt F.B., McCarthy J.P., Age associated declines in exercise time to exhaustion and ventilatory parameters in trained cyclists. J Exerc Physiol, 2003, 6 (1), 12-17.
- 4. Bussotti M., Magri D., Previtali E., Farina S., Torri A., Matturri M. et al., End-tidal pressure of CO2 and exercise performance in healthy subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2008, 103 (6), 727-732, doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0773-z.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 5. Kapus J., Ušaj A., Kapus V., Štrumbelj B., The difference in respiratory and blood gas values during recovery after exercise with spontaneous versus reduced breathing frequency. J Sport Sci Med, 2009, 8 (3), 452-457.
- 6. Gama de Abreu M., Melo M.F.V., Giannella-Neto A., Pulmonary capillary blood flow by partial CO2 rebreathing: importance of the regularity of the respiratory pattern. Clin Physiol, 2000, 20 (5), 388-398, doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2281.2000.00271.x.[Crossref]
- 7. Tanabe Y., Hosaka Y., Ito M., Ito E., Suzuki K., Significance of end-tidal PCO2 response to exercise and its relation to functional capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. Chest, 2001, 119 (3), 811-817, doi:10.1378/chest. 119.3.811.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 8. Benallal H., Busso T., Analysis of end-tidal and arterial PCO2 gradients using a breathing model. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2000, 83 (4-5), 402-408, doi: 10.1007/s004210000260.[Crossref]
- 9. Tong T.K., Fu F.H., Chung P.K., Eston R., Lu K., Quach B. et al., The effect of inspiratory muscle training on highintensity, intermittent running performance to exhaustion. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2008, 33 (4), 671-681, doi: 10.1139/H08-050.[WoS][Crossref]
- 10. Passfield L., Dobbins T., Myers S., Reilly M., Williams E.M., Acute cardio-respiratory changes induced by hyperpnoea using a respiratory muscle trainer. Ergonomics, 2005, 48(11-14), 1423-1432, doi: 10.1080/00140130500101510.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 11. Gething A.D., Williams M., Davies B., Inspiratory resistive loading improves cycling capacity: a placebo controlled trial. Br J Sports Med, 2004, 38 (6), 730-736, doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2003.007518.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 12. Markov G., Spengler C.M., Knopfli-Lenzin C., Stuessi C., Boutellier U., Respiratory muscle training increases cycling endurance without affecting cardiovascular responses to exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2001, 85 (3-4), 233-239, doi: 10.1007/s004210100450.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 13. Romer L.M., McConnell A.K., Jones D.A., Effects of inspiratory muscle training on time-trial performance in trained cyclists. J Sport Sci, 2002, 20 (7), 547-590, doi: 10.1080/026404102760000053.[Crossref]
- 14. Caine M.P., McConnell A.K., Development and evaluation of a pressure threshold inspiratory muscle trainer for use in the context of sports performance. Sports Eng, 2000, 3, 149-159.[Crossref]
- 15. Romer L.M., McConnell A.K., Jones D.A., Inspiratory muscle fatigue in trained cyclists: effects of inspiratory muscle training. Med Sci Sport Exerc, 2002, 34 (5), 785-792.[Crossref]
- 16. Zatoń M., Hebisz P., Hebisz R., Respiratory changes resulting from training with enlarged respiratory dead space [in Polish]. Sport Wyczynowy, 2008, 4-6, 28-38.
- 17. Yano T., Horiuchi M., Yunoki T., Ogata H., Kinetics of CO2 excessive expiration in constant-load exercise. J SportsMed Phys Fitness, 2002, 42 (2), 152-157.
- 18. Laursen P.B., Blanchard M.A., Jenkins D.G., Acute highintensity interval training improves Tvent and peak power output in highly trained males. Can J Appl Physiol, 2002, 27 (4), 336-348, doi: 10.1139/h02-019.[Crossref]
- 19. Anderson D.E., McNeely J.D., Windham B.G., Deviceguided slow-breathing effects on end-tidal CO2 and heartrate variability. Psychol Health Med, 2009, 14 (6), 667-679, doi: 10.1080/13548500903322791.[Crossref]
- 20. Carey D., Pliego G., Raymond R., How endurance athletes breathe during incremental exercise to fatigue: interaction of tidal volume and frequency. J Exerc Physiol, 2008, 11 (4), 44-51.
- 21. Zhao L., Lu J.B., Yang S.Q., Zhu L.H., Effect of dead space loading on ventilation, respiratory muscle and exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis, 2004, 27 (11), 748-751.
- 22. Crosby A., Talbot N.P., Balanos G.M., Donoghue S., Fatemian M., Robbins P.A., Respiratory effects in humans of a 5-day elevation of end-tidal PCO2 by 8 Torr. J ApplPhysiol, 2003, 95 (5), 1947-1954, doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol. 00548.2003.[Crossref]
- 23. Toklu A.S., Kayserilioglu A., Unal M., Ozer S., Aktas S., Ventilatory and metabolic response to rebreathing the expired air in the snorkel. Int J Sports Med, [PubMed]
- 24. Sidney D.A., Poon C.S., Ventilatory responses to dead space and CO2 breathing under inspiratory resistive load. J Appl Physiol, 1995, 78 (2), 555-561.
- 25. Mercier J., Ramonatxo M., Prefaut C., Breathing pattern and ventilatory response to CO2 during exercise. Int JSports Med, 1992, 13 (1), 1-5, doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1021225.[Crossref]
- 26. Yano T., Matsura R., Arimistu T., Yamanaka R., Lian C.S., Yunoki T. et al., Ventilation and blood lactate levels after recovery from single and multiple sprint exercise. BiolSport, 2011, 28 (4), 233-237.[WoS]
- 27. Ursino M., Magosso E., Avanzolini G., An integrated model of the human ventilator control system: the response to hypercapnia. Clin Physiol, 2001, 21 (4), 447-464, doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2281.2001.00349.x.[Crossref]
- 28. Duffin J., Mahamed S., Adaptation in the respiratory control system. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 2003, 81 (8), 765-773.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 29. Sheel A.W., MacNutt M.J., Control of ventilation in humans following intermittent hypoxia. Appl Physiol NutrMetab, 2008, 33 (3), 573-581, doi: 10.1139/H08-008.[Crossref]
- 30. Zatoń M., Smołka Ł., Circulatory and respiratory response to exercise with added respiratory dead space. Hum Mov, 2011, 12 (1), 88-94, doi: 10.2478/v10038-011-0007-9. [Crossref]
Publication order reference