Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2013 | 14 | 2 | 129-137

Article title

On the Possibility of Applying Achievement Goal Theory in Competitive Sports



Title variants

Languages of publication



Purpose. There exist numerous empirical proofs as well as theoretical bases showing that task motivational orientation and task climate allow students and athletes to function better and be more efficient. What is not certain is whether the same applies to athletes competing at the professional level. The aim of this study was to analyze whether task orientation and task-oriented climate help professional athletes avoid experiencing high levels of anxiety, thereby providing a favorable foundation for performance in high-level competition. Methods. Basketball players from the Polish II League (amateur) and Extraleague (professional) were surveyed. Motivational orientation, motivational climate, and anxiety levels were measured by the Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Perception of Significant Others’ Sport Success Criteria Questionnaire (PSOSSCQ), and Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS), respectively. Results. The reliability of the research tools on a Polish population was confirmed. Motivational climate was associated with motivational orientation; task orientation and a task-oriented climate were found to not reduce anxiety levels. Conclusions. The results do not confirm the application of achievement goal theory in high-level competitive sports.











Physical description


1 - 06 - 2013
11 - 07 - 2013


  • State Higher School of Vocational Education, Tarnów, Poland


  • 1. Lepper M.R., Greene D., Nisbett R.E., Undermining children`s intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of „overjustification” hypothesis. J Pers Soc Psychol, 1973, 28 (1), 129-137, doi: 10.1037/h0035519.[Crossref]
  • 2. Ryan R.M., Control and information in the intrapersonal sphere: An extension of cognitive evaluation theory. J PersSoc Psychol, 1982, 43 (3), 450-461, doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.43.3.450.[Crossref]
  • 3. Nicholls J.G., Achievement motivation: Conception of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychol Rev, 1984, 91 (3), 328-346, doi: 10.1037/ 0033-295X.91.3.328.[Crossref]
  • 4. Dweck C.S., Leggett E.L., A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychol Rev, 1988, 95 (2), 256-273, doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256.[Crossref]
  • 5. Ames C., Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. J Educ Psychol, 1992, 84 (3), 261-271, doi: 10.1037/ 0022-0663.84.3.261.[Crossref]
  • 6. 6. Vazou S., Ntoumanis N., Duda J.L., Predicting young athletes’ motivational indices as a function of their perceptions of the coach and peer-created climate. PsycholSport Exerc, 2006, 7 (2), 215-233, doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport. 2005.08.007.[Crossref]
  • 7. Duda J.L., Nicholls J.G, Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. J Educ Psychol, 1992, 84 (3), 290-299, doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.290.[Crossref]
  • 8. Roberts G.W., Understanding the dynamics of motivation in physical activity: The influence of achievement goals on motivational processes. In: Roberts. G.W. (ed.), Advances in Motivation in Sport and Exercise. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2001, 1-50.
  • 9. Hardy L., Jones G., Gould D., Understanding Psychological Preparation for Sport. Theory and Practice of Elite Performers. Wiley, Chichester 1996.
  • 10. Weinberg R.S., Burton D., Yukelson D., Weigand D.A., Goal setting in competitive sport: An exploratory investigation of practices of collegiate athletes. Sport Psychol, 1993, 7 (3), 275-289.
  • 11. Escarti A., Roberts G.C., Cervello E.M., Guzman J.F., Adolescent goal orientations and the perception of criteria of success used by significant others. Int J SportPsychol, 1999, 30 (3), 309-324.
  • 12. Smith R.E., Smoll F.L., Schulz R.W., Measurement and correlates of sport-specific cognitive and somatictrait anxiety: The sport anxiety scale. Anxiety Res, 1990, 2, 263-280.[Crossref]
  • 13. Roberts G.C., Treasure D.C., Balague G., Achievement goals in sport: The development and validation of the Perception of Success Questionnaire. J Sports Sci, 1998, 16 (4), 337-347, doi: 10.1080/02640419808559362.[Crossref]
  • 14. Kavussanu M., Roberts G.C., Motivation in physical activity contexts: The relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1996, 18 (3), 264-280.
  • 15. Duda J.L., Chi L., Newton M.L., Walling M.D., Catley D., Task and ego orientation and intrinsic motivation in sport. Int J Sport Psychol, 1995, 26 (1), 40-63.
  • 16. White S.A., Zellmer S.R., The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Beliefs About the Sport Success, and Trait Anxiety Among High School, Intercollegiate, and Recreational Sport Participants. Sport Psychol, 1996, 10 (1), 58-72.
  • 17. Sarrazin P., Roberts G., Cury F., Biddle S., Famose J-P., Exerted effort and performance in climbing among boys: The influence of achievement goals, perceived ability, and task difficulty. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2002, 73 (4), 425-436, doi: 10.1080/02701367.2002.10609042.[Crossref]
  • 18. Fogarty G.J., Tenenbaum G., Norrow K., Psychometric Evaluation of Goal Orientation Measures in Sport. In: Katsikitis M. (eds.), Proceedings of the 2006 Joint Conference of the APS and NZPsS. Auckland, 26-30 September, 2006, 120-124.
  • 19. Hall. H.K., Kerr A.W., Motivational antecedents of precompetitive anxiety in youth sport. Sport Psychol, 1997, 11 (1), 24-42.
  • 20. Newton M.L., Duda J.L., The interaction of motivational climate, dispositional goal orientation, and perceived ability in predicting indices of motivation. Int J SportPsychol, 1999, 30, 63-82.
  • 21. Martens R., Vealey R.S., Burton D., Competitive Anxiety in Sport. Human Kinetics, Champaign 1990.
  • 22. Hall H.K., Kerr W.A., Matthews J., Precompetitive anxiety in sport: The contribution of achievement goals and perfectionism. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1998, 20 (2), 194-217.
  • 23. Newton M.L., Duda J.L., Relations of goal orientations and expectations on multidimensional state anxiety. PerceptMot Skills, 1995, 81 (3f), 1107-1112, doi: 10.2466/ pms.1995.81.3f.1107.[Crossref]
  • 24. Martin J.J., Gill D.L., The relationship among competitive orientation, sport-confidence, self-efficacy, anxiety, and performance. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1991, 13 (2), 149-159.
  • 25. Le Bars H., Gernigon C., Ninot G., Personal and contextual determinants of elite young athletes’ persistence or dropping out over time. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2009, 19 (2), 274-285, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00786.x.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 26. Chin N.S., Khoo S., Low W.Y, Sex, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes’ beliefs, values and goal orientation in track and field. J Exerc Sci Fitness, 2009, 7 (2), 112-121, doi: 10.1016/S1728-869X(09)60014-9.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 27. Harwood C.G., Swain A., Achievement goals in sport: A critique of conceptual and measurement issues. J SportExerc Psychol, 2000, 22 (3), 235-255.
  • 28. Elliot A.J., Conroy D.E., Beyond the dichotomous model of achievement goals in sport and exercise psychology. Sport Exerc Psychol Rev, 2005, 1 (1), 17-26.
  • 29. Ntoumanis N., Biddle S.J.H., Haddock G., The mediating role of coping strategies on the relationship between achievement motivation and affect in sport. AnxietyStress Coping, 1999, 12 (3), 299-327, doi: 10.1080/1061580 9908250480.[Crossref]
  • 30. Moreno J.A., Gimeno E.C., Coll D., Relationships among goal orientations, motivational climate and flow in adolescent athletes: Differences by gender. Span J Psychol, 2008, 11, 181-191.
  • 31. Brunel P.C., Relationship between achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate on intrinsic motivation. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 1999, 9 (6), 365-374, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.1999.tb00258.x.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • 32. Ntoumanis N., Biddle S., The Relationship Between Competitive Anxiety, Achievement Goals, and Motivational Climates. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1998, 69 (2), 176-187, doi: 10.1080/02701367.1998.10607682.[Crossref]
  • 33. Duda J.L., Achievement goal research in sport: Pushing the boundaries and clarifying some misunderstanding. In: Roberts G.W. (ed.), Advances in motivation in sport and Exercise. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2001, 129-182.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.