Purpose Research on the hearing impaired has revealed that the rate of change of physical fitness characteristics between both genders may be different than that of the hearing. The aim of the study was to verify the gender-based differentiation of aerobic and anaerobic capacity in a group of deaf children and adolescents (aged 10-18 years) and to evaluate their physical activity preferences. Methods. A semi-longitudinal study was conducted, with data collected three times over a period of two years. Aerobic capacity was measured by the PWC170 cycle test, anaerobic capacity by the Wingate test. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the physical activity preferences and favored leisure activities of the participants. Results. Significant genderbased differences were found in the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of the deaf boys and girls. A moderate correlation was noted for leisure time preferences. Conclusions. Deaf children feature no gender-based differences among their physical activity preferences. Environment plays a major role in stimulating the behavior of deaf children and adolescents.