Step Aerobics and Rhythm of Movement of the Upper and Lower Limbs
Languages of publication
Purpose. The aim of this investigation was to look for relationships between the repeatability of forces generated during the movement rhythm present in step aerobics and the movement to a rhythm by the upper and lower limbs alone. As step aerobics requires the symmetric involvement of both the upper and lower limbs, it appears to be important to examine whether a relationship exists between repeatability of a rhythm and a repeatability of forces generated when moving to a rhythm. As step aerobics is considered an endurance activity, the repeatability of the force reproduced by the lower limb muscles may be important in the prevention of injury. Methods. The study involved using a mock step bench which consisted of two Kistler force plates. The 29 female subjects of the study executed two motor tasks. The first task was hitting the plate with the dominant and the non-dominant upper and lower limb to a musical rhythm. The second task consisted in performing the basic step of step aerobics on the bench. The rhythm in both tasks was dictated by the beat of a metronome. Results. No statistically significant differences were found between respectability of producing a rhythm by the dominant and non-dominant upper and lower limbs. No correlation was found between the rhythm reproduction error of the limbs and the accuracy of moving to a rhythm during the step aerobics task. This second task was characterized by a high repeatability of the generated forces and a high variability in following a musical rhythm. Conclusions. Body mass does not influence the force generated during rhythm reproduction with the upper and lower limbs. During step walking, the study participants were characterized with a high repeatability of generated force and also by a high variability in following a musical rhythm.
1 - 03 - 2013
24 - 04 - 2013
- University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland
- University School of Physical Education, Wrocław, Poland
- Katedra Biomechaniki, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, al. I.J. Paderewskiego 35, 51-612 Wrocław, Poland, firstname.lastname@example.org
- 1. Riley M.A., Amazeen E.L., Amazeen P.G., Treffner P.J., Turvey M.T., Effect of temporal scaling and attention on the asymmetrical dynamics of bimanual coordination. Motor Control, 1997, 1 (3), 263-283.
- 2. Verheul M.H.G., Geuze R.H., Bimanual coordination and musical experience: the role of intrinsic dynamics and behavioral information. Motor Control, 2004, 8 (3), 270-291.[PubMed]
- 3. Torre K., Balasubramaniam R., Two different processes for sensorimotor synchronization in continuous and discontinuous rhythmic movements. Exp Brain Res, 2009, 199 (2), 157-166, doi: 10.1007/s00221-009-1991-2.[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
- 4. Trainor L.J., Gao X., Lei J., Lehtovaara K., Harris L.R., The primal role of the vestibular system in determining musical rhythm. Cortex, 2009, 45 (1), 35-43, doi: 10.1016/ j.cortex.2007.10.014.[WoS][Crossref][PubMed]
- 5. Lo Y.L., Zhang H.H., Wang C.C., Chin Z.Y., Fook- Chong S., Gabriel C., Guan C.T., Correlation of near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in overt reading and musical tasks. Motor Control, 2009, 13 (1), 84-99.[PubMed]
- 6. Olex-Zarychta D., Juras G., Differences in some aspects of co-ordination between the twin and single-born subjects. J Hum Kinet, 2007, 17, 63-74.
- 7. Raczek J., Juras G., Waśkiewicz Z., The diagnosis of motor coordination. J Hum Kinet, 2002, 6, 113-125.
- 8. Mehlich R., Iskra J., Góralczyk R., Waśkiewicz Z., Specific and non-specific timing abilities of elite Polish hurdlers. J Hum Kinet, 2002, 8, 93-98.
- 9. Zachopoulou A., Mantis K., Serbezis V., Teodosiou A., Papadimitriou K., Differentiation of parameters for rhythmic ability among young tennis players, basketball players and swimmers. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 2000, 5 (2), 220-230, doi: 10.1080/1740898000050208.[Crossref]
- 10. Petryński W., Bernstein’s construction of movement model and contemporary motor control and motor learning theories. Hum Mov, 2007, 8 (2), 136-146.
- 11. Winiarski S., Rutkowska-Kucharska A., Estimated ground reaction force in normal and pathological gait. ActaBioeng Biomech, 2009, 11 (1), 53-60.
- 12. Rutkowska-Kucharska A., Szpala A., Pieciuk E., Symmetry of muscle activity during abdominal exercises. ActaBioeng Biomech, 2009, 11 (1), 25-30.
- 13. Szpala A., Rutkowska-Kucharska A., Drapała J., Buczkowski K., Zawadzki J., Electromechanical delay (EMD) in symmetrical activity of the muscles stabilizing spinal column under static conditions. Acta Bioeng Biomech, 2010, 12 (4), 11-18.
- 14. Jaszczak M., The dynamical asymmetry of the upper extremities during symmetrical exercises. Hum Mov, 2008, 9 (2), 116-120, doi: 10.2478/v10038-008-0014-7.[Crossref]
- 15. de Freitas P.B., Krishnan V., Jaric S., Force coordination in object manipulation. J Hum Kinet, 2008, 20, 37-51, doi: 10.2478/v10078-008-0016-8.[Crossref]
- 16. Williford H.N., Richards L.A., Scharff-Olson M., Brown B., Blessing D.L., Duey W.J., Bench stepping and running in woman. Changes in fitness and injury status. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1998, 38 (3), 221-226.[PubMed]
- 17. Osiński W., Kinesiology [in Polish]. AWF, Poznań 2003.
- 18. Starosta W., Lateral differentiation of movement in light of N. Bernstein’s theory. J Hum Kinet, 2000, 3, 3-15.
- 19. Raczek J., Mynarski W., Ljach W., Ljach W., Theoretical and empirical basis for developing and diagnosing of coordination motor abilities. AWF, Katowice 1998, 36-98.
- 20. Szpala A., Rutkowska-Kucharska A., Drapała J., Buczkowski K., Choosing the right body position for assessing trunk flexors and extensors torque output. Hum Mov, 2011, 12 (1), 57-64, doi: 10.2478/v10038-011-0005-y.[Crossref]
- 21. Murian A., Deschamps T., Temprado J.J., Effects of force production and trial duration on bimanual performance and attentional demands in a rhythmic coordination task. Motor Control, 2008, 12 (1), 21-37.
- 22. Jeka J.J., Kelso J.A.S., Manipulating symmetry in the coordination dynamics of human movement. J Exp PsycholGen, 1995, 21 (2), 260-374, doi: 10.1037/0096-15220.127.116.110.[Crossref]
Publication order reference