Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2013 | 14 | 1 | 56-63

Article title

Muscular Activation Patterns in Swimmers with Asymptomatic Shoulder Joint Instability


Title variants

Languages of publication



Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the (electromyographic) EMG patterns of the shoulder muscles in asymptomatic swimmers with AGI - atraumatic glenohumeral instability. AGI, one of the most common shoulder disorders in athletes who perform overhead activities, occurs especially among swimmers. AGI usually provokes shoulder pain and secondary impingement syndrome, which might alter glenohumeral and scapular kinematics and change the activity of the shoulder muscles. Alternatively, pain or functional activities might affect EMG patterns in individuals with AGI. Methods. Eight swimmers with AGI and eight healthy swimmers took part in this cross-sectional study. Bilateral and simultaneous shoulder elevations in the scapular plane toward three different target distances were investigated, and the shoulder kinematics and EMG activities of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic muscles were also collected. Results. No differences in the EMG patterns were found between swimmers with and without AGI in terms of the rate of EMG rise and magnitude. Conclusions. Shoulder instability does not necessarily affect the modulation of the shoulder muscles in swimmers with AGI. Others factors such as laxity in the capsular structures and ligaments may be one of the primary reasons for pain and instability in these athletes.










Physical description


1 - 03 - 2013
24 - 04 - 2013


  • Santa Catarina State University, Florianópolis, Brazil
  • Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Kansas University Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160 USA
  • Santa Catarina State University, Florianópolis, Brazil
  • Santa Catarina State University, Florianópolis, Brazil
  • University Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, United States


  • 1. Bigliani L.U., Codd T.P., Connor P.M., Levine W.N., Littlefield M.A., Hershon S.J., Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player. Am J Sports Med, 1997, 25 (5), 609-613, doi: 10.1177/036354659702500504.[Crossref]
  • 2. Bak K., Fauno P., Clinical findings in competitive swimmers with shoulder pain. Am J Sports Med, 1997, 25 (2), 254-260, doi:10.1177/036354659702500221.[Crossref]
  • 3. Glousman R., Jobe F., Tibone J., Moynes D., Antonelli D., Perry J., Dynamic electromyographic analysis of the throwing shoulder with glenohumeral instability. J BoneJoint Surg Am, 1988, 70 (2), 220-226.
  • 4. Illyes A., Kiss R.M., Electromyographic analysis in patients with multidirectional shoulder instability during pull, forward punch, elevation and overhead throw. KneeSurg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2007, 15 (5), 624-631, doi: 10.1007/s00167-006-0163-1.[Crossref]
  • 5. Ogston J.B., Ludewig P.M., Differences in 3-dimensional shoulder kinematics between persons with multidirectional instability and asymptomatic controls. Am JSports Med, 2007, 35 (8), 1361-1370, doi: 10.1177/0363 546507300820.[Crossref]
  • 6. Matias R., Pascoal A.G., The unstable shoulder in arm elevation: A three-dimensional and electromyographic study in subjects with glenohumeral instability. ClinBiomech (Bristol, Avon), 2006, 21 Suppl 1, S52-58, doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2005.09.014.[Crossref]
  • 7. Kronberg M., Brostrom L.A., Nemeth G., Differences in shoulder muscle activity between patients with generalized joint laxity and normal controls. Clin Orthop, 1991, 269, 181-192, doi: 10.1097/00003086-199108000 -00026.[Crossref]
  • 8. Barden J.M., Balyk R., Raso V.J., Moreau M., Bagnall K., Atypical shoulder muscle activation in multidirectional instability. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005, 116 (8), 1846-1857, doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2005.04.019.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • 9. Santos M.J., Belangero W.D., Almeida G.L., The effect of joint instability on latency and recruitment order of the shoulder muscles. J. Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2007, 17 (2), 167-175, doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2006.01.010.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 10. Gottlieb G.L., Corcos D.M., Agarwal G.C., Organizing principles for single-joint movements: I. A speed-insensitive strategy. J Neurophysiol, 1989, 62 (2), 342-357.[PubMed]
  • 11. Corcos D.M., Gottlieb G.L., Agarwal G.C., Organizing principles for single-joint movements. II. A speed-sensitive strategy. J Neurophysiol, 1989, 62 (2), 358-368.[PubMed]
  • 12. Almeida G.L., Hong D.A., Corcos D., Gottlieb G.L., Organizing principles for voluntary movement: extending single-joint rules. J Neurophysiol, 1995, 74 (4), 1374-1381.[PubMed]
  • 13. Basmajian J.V., Electromyography - dynamic gross anatomy: A review. Am J Anat, 1980, 159 (3), 245-260, doi: 10.1002/aja.1001590302.[PubMed][Crossref]
  • 14. Santos M.J., Kanekar N., Aruin A.S., The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 1. Electromyographic analysis. J ElectromyogrKinesiol, 2010, 20 (3), 388-397, doi:10.1016/j.jelekin. 2009.06.006.[Crossref]
  • 15. Gottlieb G.L., Muscle activation patterns during two types of voluntary single-joint movement. J Neurophysiol, 1998, 80 (4), 1860-1867.[PubMed]
  • 16. Gottlieb G.L., Corcos D.M., Agarwal G.C., Strategies for the control of voluntary movements with one mechanical degree of freedom. Behav Brain Sci, 1989, 12 (2), 189-210, doi: 10.1017/S0140525X00048238.[Crossref]
  • 17. Santos M.J., Aruin A.S., Role of lateral muscles and body orientation in feedforward postural control. Exp Brain Res, 2008, 184 (4), 547-559, doi: 10.1007/s00221-007-1123-9.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 18. 1Shiratori T., Latash M.L., Anticipatory postural adjustments during load catching by standing subjects. ClinNeurophysiol, 2001, 112 (7), 1250-1265, doi: 10.1016/ S1388-2457(01)00553-3.[Crossref]
  • 19. Hundza S.R., Zehr E.P., Muscle activation and cutaneous reflex modulation during rhythmic and discrete arm tasks in orthopaedic shoulder instability. Exp Brain Res, 2007, 179 (3), 339-351, doi: 10.1007/s00221-006-0793-z.[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
  • 20. Morris A.D., Kemp G.J., Frostick S.P., Shoulder electromyography in multidirectional instability. J Shoulder ElbowSurg, 2004, 13 (1), 24-29, doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2003.09.005.[Crossref][PubMed]
  • 21. Pink M., Jobe F.W., Perry J., Browne A., Scovazzo M.L., Kerrigan J., The painful shoulder during the butterfly stroke. An electromyographic and cinematographic analysis of twelve muscles. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 1993, 288, 60-72, doi: 10.1097/00003086-199303000-00008.[Crossref]
  • 22. Ludewig P.M., Cook T.M., Nawoczenski D.A., Three-dimensional scapular orientation and muscle activity at selected positions of humeral elevation. J Orthop SportsPhys Ther, 1996, 24 (2), 57-65.
  • 23. Guanche C., Knatt T., Solomonow M., Lu Y., Baratta R. The synergistic action of the capsule and the shoulder muscles. Am J Sports Med, 1995, 23 (3), 301-306, doi: 10.1177/036354659502300308.[Crossref]
  • 24. Riemann B.L., Lephart S.M., The Sensorimotor System, Part II: The Role of Proprioception in Motor Control and Functional Joint Stability. J Athl Train, 2002, 37 (1), 80-84.[PubMed]
  • 25. Sciascia A., Kuschinsky N., Nitz A.J., Mair S.D., Uhl T.L., Electromyographical comparison of four common shoulder exercises in unstable and stable shoulders. RehabilRes Pract, 2012, 783-824, doi:10.1155/2012/783824.[Crossref]
  • 26. Apreleva M., Hasselman C.T., Debski R.E., Fu F.H., Woo S.L.-Y., Warner J.J.P., A dynamic analysis of glenohumeral motion after simulated capsulolabral injury. A cadaver model. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1998, 80 (4), 474-480.[PubMed]
  • 27. Pollock R.G., Wang V.M., Bucchieri J.S., Cohen N.P., Huang C.-Y., Pawluk R.J. et al., Effects of repetitive subfailure strains on the mechanical behavior of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. J Shoulder Elbow Surg, 2000, 9 (5), 427-435, doi: 10.1067/mse.2000.108388.[Crossref]
  • 28. Smith C.J., Type I and Type II errors: what are they and why do they matter? Phlebology, 2012, 27 (4), 199-200, doi:10.1258/phleb.2012.012j04.[Crossref][WoS]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.