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2014 | 44 | 1 | 67-74

Article title

Intracyclic Velocity Variation and Arm Coordination for Different Skilled Swimmers in the Front Crawl


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The aim of this study was to examine whether the intracyclic velocity variation (IVV) was lower in elite swimmers than in beginner swimmers at various velocities, and whether differences may be related to arm coordination. Seven elite and nine beginner male swimmers swam front crawl at four different swimming velocities (maximal velocity, 75%, 85%, and 95% of maximal swimming velocity). The index of arm coordination (IDC) was calculated as the lag time between the propulsive phases of each arm. IVV was determined from the coefficient of variation of horizontal velocity within one stroke cycle. IVV for elite swimmers was significantly lower (26%) than that for beginner swimmers at all swimming velocities [...] . In contrast, the IDC was similar between elite and beginner swimmers. These data suggest that IVV is a strong predictor of the skill level for front crawl, and that elite swimmers have techniques to decrease IVV. However, the IDC does not contribute to IVV differences between elite and beginner swimmers.









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1 - 12 - 2014
1 - 12 - 2014
30 - 12 - 2014


  • Department of Sports Sciences, Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan
  • Graduate School of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University, Osaka, Japan
  • Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan
  • Faculty of Health and Well-being, Kansai University, Osaka, Japan.


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