Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 42 | 1 | 63-71

Article title

The Existence of a Sticking Region in Free Weight Squats


Title variants

Languages of publication



The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of the sticking region in two legged free weight squats. Fifteen resistance-training males (age 24 ± 4 years, body mass 82 ± 11 kg, body height 179 ± 6 cm) with 6 ± 3 years of resistance-training experience performed 6-RM in free weight squats. The last repetition was analyzed for the existence of a sticking region. Only in 10 out of 15 participants a sticking region was observed. The observed sticking region was much shorter than in the bench press. Furthermore, rectus femoris decreased the EMG activity in contrast to increased EMG activity in biceps femoris around the sticking and surrounding region. No significant change in EMG activity was found for the lateral and medial vastus muscles. It is suggested that a combination of these muscle activity changes could be one of the causes of the existence of the sticking region in free weight squats










Physical description


1 - 10 - 2014
10 - 10 - 2014


  • Department of Teacher Education of Nord Trøndelag University College, Levanger Norway
  • Department of Teacher Education and Sports of Sogn and Fjordane University College, Norway
  • Department of Teacher Education and Sports of Sogn and Fjordane University College, Norway


  • ACSM American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2009; 41: 687-708[WoS]
  • Arnason A, Sigurdsson SB, Gudmundsson A, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Risk Factors for Injuries in Football. Am J Sports Med, 2004; 32: 5-16[Crossref]
  • Brechue WF, Abe T. The role of FFM accumulation and skeletal muscle architecture in powerlifting performance. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2002; 86 327-336[PubMed]
  • Duffey MJ, Challis JH. Fatigue effects on bar kinematics during the bench press. J Strength & Cond Res, 2007; 21: 556-560
  • Elliott BC, Wilson GJ, Kerr GK. A biomechanical analysis of the sticking region in the bench press. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1989; 21: 450-462[PubMed]
  • Escamilla RF, Fransisco AC, Fleisig GS, Barrentine SW, Welch CM, Kayes AV, Speer KP, Andrews JR. A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of sumo and conventional style deadlifts. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2000; 32: 1265-1275[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Goodman CA, Pearce AJ, Nicholes CJ, Gatt BM, Fairweather IH. No difference in 1RM strength and muscle activation during the barbell chest press on a stable and unstable surface. J Strength & Cond Res, 2008; 22: 88-94[WoS]
  • Hales ME, Johnson, BF, Johnson JT. Kinematic analysis of the powerlifting style squat and the conventional deadlift during competition: is there a cross-over effect between lifts? J Strength & Cond Res, 2009; 29: 2574-2580[Crossref][WoS]
  • Hermens HJ, Freriks B, Disselhorst-Klug C, Rau G. Development of recommendations for SEMG sensors and sensor placement procedures. J Electr & Kin, 2000; 10: 361-374[Crossref]
  • Lander JE, Bates BT, Swahill JA, Hamill J. A comparison between free-weight and isokinetic bench pressing. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1985; 17: 344-353[PubMed]
  • Madsen N, McLaughlin T. Kinematic factors influencing performance and injury risk in the bench press exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1984; 16: 376-381[PubMed]
  • Marshall JL, Girgis FG, Zelko RR. The biceps femoris tendon and its functional significance. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1972; 54: 1444-1450[PubMed]
  • Newton R, Murphy AJ, Humphries B, Wilson G, Kraemer W, Häkkinen K. Influence of load and stretch shortening cycle on the kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation that occurs during explosive upper body movements. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1997; 75: 333-342[Crossref]
  • Paoli A, Marcolin G, Petrone N. The effect of stance width on the electromyographical activity of eight superficial thigh muscles during back squat with different bar loads. J Strength & Cond Res, 2009; 23: 246-250[WoS][Crossref]
  • Saeterbakken AH, Fimland MS. Electromyographic activity and 6RM strength in bench press on stable and unstable surfaces. J Strength & Cond Res, 2013a; 27: 1101-1107[WoS]
  • Saeterbakken AH, Fimland MS. Muscle activity of the core during bilateral, unilateral, seated and standing resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2011; 112: 1671-1678[PubMed][WoS]
  • Saeterbakken AH, Fimland MS. Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces. J Strength & Cond Res, 2013b; 27: 130-136[WoS][Crossref]
  • Sandler D. Sports Power. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics, 65-90; 2005 van den Tillaar R, Ettema G. A comparison of kinematics and muscle activity between successful and unsuccessful attempts in bench press. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2009; 41: 2056-2063
  • van den Tillaar R, Ettema G. A comparison of muscle activity in concentric and counter movement maximum bench press. J Human Kin, 2013; 38: 63-71
  • van den Tillaar R, Ettema G. The “sticking period” in bench press. J Sports Sci, 2010; 28: 529-535
  • van den Tillaar R, Sæterbakken A. The sticking region in three chest-press exercises with increasing degrees of freedom. J Strength & Cond Res, 2012; 26: 2962-2969 [WoS]
  • van den Tillaar R, Saeterbakken AH, Ettema G. Is the occurrence of the sticking region the result of diminishing potentiation in bench press? J Sports Sci, 2012; 30: 591-599 [WoS]
  • van den Tillaar R, Sæterbakken AH. Fatigue effects upon sticking region and electromyography in a sixrepetition maximum bench press J Sports Sci, 2013; 31: 1823-1830 [WoS]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.