Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 40 | 1 | 235-243
Article title

The Elements of Executive Attention in Top Soccer Referees and Assistant Referees

Title variants
Languages of publication
The aim of the present study was to compare executive attention of top soccer referees and assistant referees at different levels of professional attainment. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (FIFA and national level) - 30 referees and 23 assistant referees. Executive attention of assistant referees was significantly better than the referees’ (p<0.01). Furthermore, extraclass and international referees demonstrated better executive attention than the first-league referees (p<0.01). The research results have proved that referees’ executive attention differs depending on their function and professional level, as well as indicated that the quality of abilities may influence the number and correctness of decisions made during a game. This elementary cognitive process may be strongly shaped by individual’s experience and age. This finding may be instrumental in screening referees and developing criteria for recruiting future referees.
Physical description
1 - 3 - 2014
9 - 4 - 2014
  • Castagna C, Abt G, D’Ottavio S. The relationship between selected blood lactate thresholds and match performance in elite soccer referees. J Strenght Cond Res, 2002; 16: 23 - 627
  • Catteeuw P, Gilis B, Garcia - Aranda JM, Wagemans J, Helsen W. Offside decision making in the 2002 and 2006 FIFA World Cups. J Sport Sci, 2010; 28: 1027 - 1032[WoS]
  • Catteeuw P, Gilis B, Jaspers A, Wagemans J, Helsen W. Training of Perceptual - Cognitive Skills in Offside Decision Making. J Sport Exercise Psy, 2010; 32: 845 - 861
  • Catteeuw P, Gilis B, Wagemans J, Helsen W. Offside decision making of assistant referees in the English Premier League: Impact of physical and perceptual - cognitive factors on match performance. J Sport Sci, 2010a; 28: 471-481[WoS][Crossref]
  • Catteeuw P, Gilis B, Wagemans J, Helsen W. Perceptual - Cognitive Skills in Offside Decision Making: Expertise and Training Effects. J Sport Exercise Psy, 2010b; 32: 828 - 844
  • Catteeuw P, Helsen W, Gilis B, Van Roie E, Wagemans J. Visual Scan Patterns and Decision - Making Skills of Expert Assistant Referees in Offside Situations. J Sport Exercise Psy, 2009; 31: 786 - 797
  • Ghasemi A, Momeni M, Rezaee M, Gholami A. The Difference in Visual Skills Between Expert Versus Novice Soccer Referees. J Hum Kinet, 2009; 22: 15-20
  • Gilis B, Helsen W, Catteeuw P, Van Roie E, Wagemans J. Interpretation and application of the offside law by expert assistant referees: Perception of spatial positions in complex dynamic events on and off the field. J Sport Sci, 2009; 27: 551 - 563[Crossref][WoS]
  • Gilis B, Helsen W, Catteeuw P, Wagemans J. Offside Decisions by Expert Assistant Referees in Association Football: Perception and Recall of Spatial Positions in Complex Dynamic Events. J Exp Psychol - Appl, 2008; 14: 21 - 35[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
  • Gomes LM, Martinho AJ, Castelo NA. Effects of occupational exposure to low frequency noise on cognition. Aviat Space Envir Md, 1999; 70(2): A115 - A118
  • Helsen W, Bultynck JB. Physical and perceptual - cognitive demands of top - class refereeing in association football. J Sport Sci, 2004; 22: 179-189[Crossref]
  • Helsen W, Gilis B, Weston M. Errors in judging “offside” in association football: Test of the optical error versus the perceptual flash - lag hypothesis. J Sport Sci, 2006; 24: 521 - 528[Crossref]
  • Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Marcora SM. Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. J Sport Sci, 2005; 23: 583 - 92[Crossref]
  • Kosslyn SM, Flynn RA, Amsterdam JB, Wang G. Components of high - level vision, a cognitive neuroscience analysis and accounts of neurological syndroms. Cognition, 1990; 34
  • Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Physiological demands of top - class soccer refereeing in relation to physical capacity: effect of intense intermittent exercise training. J Sport Sci, 2001; 19: 881 - 891[Crossref]
  • Krustrup P, Mohr M, Bangsbo J. Activity profile and physiological demands of top - class soccer assistant refereeing in relation to training status. J Sport Sci, 2002; 20: 861 - 871[Crossref]
  • López B, Vázquez C. Effects of the Attention Process Training (APT) on attentional improvement perception in people diagnosed of schizophrenia. Psychiat Res, 2003; 119: 41-53[Crossref]
  • MacMahon C, Helsen W, Starkes J, Weston M. Decision - making skills and deliberate practice in elite association football referees. J Sport Sci, 2006; 25: 65 - 78[WoS]
  • Mallo J, Navarro E, Garcia - Aranda JM. Activity profile of top - class association football referees in relation to performance in selected physical tests. J Sport Sci, 2007; 25: 805 - 13[Crossref]
  • Mallo J, Navarro E, Garcia - Aranda JM, Gilis B, Helsen W. Analysis of the Kinematical Demands Imposed on Top - Class Assistant Referees During Competitive Soccer Matches. J Strenght Cond Res, 2008; 22: 1-8[WoS]
  • Oudejans RD, Bakker F, Verheijen R, Gerrits JC, Steinbruckner M, Beek PJ. How position and motion of expert assistant referees in soccer relate to the quality of their offside judgements during actual match. Int J Sport Psychol, 2000; 36: 3 - 21
  • Strelau J. Psychology. Academic Textbook. II, GWP Gdańsk; 2000
  • Weston M, Bird S, Helsen W, Nevill A, Castagna C. The effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective match workload of English Premier League referees. J Sci Med Sport, 2006; 9(3): 256 - 262[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Weston M, Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Breivik S. Ageing and physical match performance in English Premier League soccer referees. J Sci Med Sport, 2010; 13: 96 - 100[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Williams AM, Ericsson KA. Perceptual - cognitive expertise performance approach. Hum Movement Sci, 2005; 24: 283 - 307[Crossref]
  • Williams AM, Hodges NJ. Practise, Instruction and skill acquisition in soccer: Challenging. Tradition. J Sport Sci, 2005a; 23: 637 - 650 [Crossref]
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.