Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 40 | 1 | 227-234

Article title

Relationship Between Break-Time Physical Activity, Age, and Sex in a Rural Primary Schools, Wales, UK


Title variants

Languages of publication



The aim of this study was to examine the physical activity during the break-times of primary school children in rural areas, and its relationship with age and sex. 380 children (192 boys and 188 girls; age=9.5±1.1 years) participated in the study. Break-time physical activity in the morning and lunch breaks was measured by accelerometry. An ANOVA was used to determine differences by sex in each age group, together with the respective confidence intervals and effect sizes. The results showed that 8-year-olds performed more physical exercise than 11-year-olds during the two breaks (p=0.005). For the boys, the 8-year-olds did more physical activity than the 10-year-olds, while, for the girls, those aged 8 and 9 years did more PA than girls aged 11 years (p<0.001). The only difference between boys and girls was for the 10-year-olds (p=0.043), with the boys doing more physical activity. Teachers might find it useful to take these findings into account to design physical activity programmes aimed at increasing the playground physical activity of older children.










Physical description


1 - 3 - 2014
9 - 4 - 2014


  • Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte, AFIDES Research Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Caceres, Spain
  • Cardiff School of Sport, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
  • Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte, AFIDES Research Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Caceres, Spain


  • Backx K, McCann A, Wasley D, Dunseath G, Luzio S, Owens D. The effect of a supported exercise programme in patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. J Sports Sci, 2011; 29: 579-586[Crossref][PubMed][WoS]
  • Barrios V, Escobar C, Calderon A, Moreno FJ, Pallares V, Galgo A; behalf of Working Group on Hypertension of the Spanish Society of Primary Care (Grupo HTA/SEMERGEN) and PRESCAP Study 2010. Clinical profile and blood pressure control in patients managed in primary care in Spain: are there any differences between the young and the old? Rev Esp Cardiol, 2013; 66: 824-825
  • Beavers KM, Beavers DP, Nesbit BA, Ambrosius WT, Marsh AP, Nicklas BJ, Rejeski WJ. Effect of an 18- month physical activity and weight loss intervention on body composition in overweight and obese older adults. Obesity, 2014; 22: 325-331[Crossref]
  • Blaes A, Ridgers ND, Aucouturier J, Van Praagh E, Berthoin S, Baquet G. Effects of a playground marking intervention on school recess physical activity in French children. Prev Med, 2013; 57: 580-584[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Cardon G, Labarque V, Smits D, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Promoting physical activity at the pre-school playground: the effects of providing markings and play equipment. Prev Med, 2009; 48: 335-340[PubMed][Crossref][WoS]
  • Cohen L. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988
  • Cooke PA, Tully MA, Cupples ME, Gilliland AE, Gormley GJ. A randomised control trial of experiential learning to promote physical activity. Educ Prim Care, 2013; 24: 427-35[PubMed]
  • Dessing D, Pierik FH, Sterkenburg RP, van Dommelen P, Maas Jm de Vries SI. Schoolyard physical activity of 6-11 year old children assessed by GPS and accelerometry. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Ac, 2013; 14: 97
  • Donatiello E, Dello Russo M, Formisano A, Lauria F, Nappo A, Reineke A, Sparano S, Barba G, Russo P, Siani A. Physical activity, adiposity and urbanization level in children: results for the Italian cohort of the IDEFICS study. Public Health, 2013; 127(8): 761-765
  • Eisenmann JC, Strath SJ, Shadrick D, Rigsby P, Hirsch N, Jacobson L. Validity of uniaxial accelerometry during activities of daily living in children. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2004; 91: 259-263[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Escalante Y, Backx K, Saavedra JM, García-Hermoso A, Domínguez AM. Relationship between daily physical activity, recess physical activity, age and sex in scholar of Primary School, Spain. Rev Esp Salud Pública, 2011; 85: 481-489[PubMed][Crossref]
  • Escalante Y, Backx K, Saavedra JM, García-Hermoso A, Domínguez AM. Play area and physical activity in recess in primary schools. Kinesiol. Int J Fundam Appl Kinesiol, 2012; 42: 123-129
  • Escalante Y, García-Hermoso A, Backx K, Saavedra JM. Playground designs to increase physical activity levels during school recess: A systematic review. Health Educ Behavi, 2013; doi:10.1177/1090198113490725[Crossref]
  • Huberty JL, Beets MW, Beighle A, Welk G. Environmental modifications to increase physical activity during recess: preliminary findings from ready for recess. J Phys Act Health, 2011; 8: S249-256
  • Iannotti RJ, Wang J. Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet, and BMI Among US Adolescents, 2001 -2009. Pediatrics, 2013; 132: 606-614
  • Kimm SY, Glynn NW, Kriska AM, Fitzgerald SL, Aaron DJ, Similo SH, McMahon RP, Barton BA. Longitudinal changes in physical activity in a biracial cohort during adolescence. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2000; 32: 1445-1454[Crossref]
  • Lopes V, Silva Vasques CM, Ferreira Leite de Oliveira Pereira MB, Ribeiro Maia JA, Malina RM. Physical activity patterns during school recess: A study in children 6 to 10 years old. Int Electronic J Health Educ, 2006; 9: 192-201
  • Macdonald D, Rodger S, Abbott R, Ziviani J, Jones J. I could do with a pair of wings: perspectives on physical activity, bodies and health from young Australian children. Sport Educ Soc, 2005; 10: 195-209[Crossref]
  • Maitland C, Stratton G, Foster S, Braham R, Rosenberg M. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 2013; 17: 10:99[WoS][Crossref]
  • Nettlefold L, McKay HA, Warburton DE, McGuire KA, Bredin SS, Naylor PJ. The challenge of low physical activity during the school day: at recess, lunch and in physical education. Br J Sports Med, 2011; 45: 813-819 [Crossref]
  • O'Dwyer MV, Fairclough SJ, Ridgers ND, Knowles ZR, Foweather L, Stratton G. Effect of a school-based active play intervention on sedentary time and physical activity in preschool children. Health Educ Res, 2013; 28: 931-942[Crossref][WoS]
  • Ridgers ND, Fairclough SJ, Stratton G. Twelve-month effects of a playground intervention on children's morning and lunchtime recess physical activity levels. J Phys Act Health, 2010; 7: 167-175
  • Ridgers ND, Stratton G, Fairclough SJ, Twisk JW. Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study. Int J Behav Nutrition Phys Act, 2007; 21: 4-9
  • Ridgers ND, Stratton G, Fairclough SJ, Twisk JW. Long-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures on children's recess physical activity levels. Prev Med, 2007; 44: 393-397[Crossref][WoS]
  • Rowlands AV. Field methods of assessing physical activity and energy balance. In: Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual. Tests, Procedures and Data. R.G. Eston, and T. Reilly (Ed.). London: Routledge, 151-170; 2001
  • Saglam M, Arikan H, Savci S, Inal-Ince D, Bosnak-Guclu M, Karabulut E, Tokgozoglu L. International physical activity questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Turkish version. Percept Mot Skills, 2010; 111: 278-284[PubMed]
  • Sallis JF, Buono MJ, Roby JJ, Carlson D, Nelson JA. The Caltrac accelerometer as a physical activity monitor for school-age children. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1990; 22: 698-703[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Salmon J, Veitch J, Abbott G, Chinapaw M, Brug JJ, Tevelde SJ, Cleland V, Hume C, Crawford D, Ball K. Are associations between the perceived home and neighbourhood environment and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour moderated by urban/rural location? Health Place, 2013; 24: 44-53[Crossref]
  • Sherar LB, Esliger DW, Baxter-Jones AD, Tremblay MS. Age and gender differences in youth physical activity: does physical maturity matter? Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2007; 39: 830-835[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Sigmund E, Sigmundová D, El Ansari W. Changes in physical activity in pre-schoolers and first-grade children: longitudinal study in the Czech Republic. Child Care Health Dev, 2009; 35: 376-382[WoS][Crossref]
  • Stellino MB, Sinclair CD, Partridge JA, McClary King K. Differences in children’s recess physical activity: recess activity of the week intervention. J Sch Health, 2010; 80: 436-444[WoS][Crossref]
  • Stratton G. Promoting children's physical activity in primary school: an intervention study using playground markings. Ergonomics, 2000; 43: 1538-1546[Crossref]
  • Stratton G, Mullan E. The effect of multicolor playground markings on children's physical activity level during recess. Prev Med, 2005; 41: 828-833[Crossref]
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010: understanding and improving health. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 2000
  • Varo JJ, Martínez-González MA, de Irala-Estévez J, Kearney J, Gibney M, Martínez A. Distribution and determinants of sedentary lifestyles in the European Union. Int J Epidemiol, 2003; 32: 138-146[Crossref][PubMed]
  • Verstraete SJ, Cardon GM, De Clercq DL, De Bourdeaudhuij IM. Increasing children's physical activity levels during recess periods in elementary schools: the effects of providing game equipment. Eur J Public Health, 2006; 16: 415-419[Crossref]
  • Welsman JR, Armstrong N. The measurement and interpretation of aerobic fitness in children: current issues. J R Soc Med, 1996; 89: 281-285
  • World Health Organization. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Berna (Suiza): World Health Organization 2010. Available at: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_recommendations/en/index.html; accessed on 14.08.2011
  • Yasumitsu T, Nogawa H. Effects of a short-term coordination exercise program during school recess: agility of seven- to eight-year-old elementary school children. Percept Mot Skills, 2013; 116: 598-610
  • Yngve A, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Wolf A, Grjibovski A, Brug J, Due P, Ehrenblad B, Elmadfa I, Franchini B, Klepp KI, Poortvliet E, Rasmussen M, Thorsdottir I, Perez Rodrigo C. Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe: The Pro Children Study. Eur J Public Health, 2008; 18: 126-130 [PubMed]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.