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2013 | 39 | 1 | 59-66

Article title

Alterations in Three-dimensional Knee Kinematics and Kinetics during Neutral, Squeeze and Outward Squat


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The squat exercise was usually performed with varying feet and hip angles by different populations. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast the three-dimensional knee angles, moments, and forces during dynamic squat exercises with varying feet and hip angles. Lower extremity motions and ground reaction forces for fifteen healthy subjects (9 females and 6 males) were recorded while performing the squat with feet pointing straight ahead (neutral squat), 30º feet adduction (squeeze squat) and 30º feet abduction (outward squat). Nonparametric procedures were used to detect differences in the interested measures between the conditions. No significant difference in three-dimensional peak knee angles was observed for three squat exercises (p>0.05), however, the overall tendency of knee rotations was affected by varying feet and hip positions. During the whole cycle, the outward squat mainly displayed adduction moments, while the neutral and squeeze squat demonstrated abduction moments. Peak abduction moments were significantly affected by feet positions (p<0.05). Moreover, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint forces progressively increased as knee flexed and decreased as knee extended, yet peak forces were not affected by varying feet positions (p>0.05). In conclusion, a neutral position is recommended to perform the squat exercise, while the squeeze squat and outward squat might contribute to the occurrence of joint pathologies.









Physical description


1 - 12 - 2013
31 - 12 - 2013


  • College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.
  • College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.
  • College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.
  • College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.


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