Molecular shape is a presentation of a molecule’s three-dimensional structure and its volume of space and surface electrostatic potential map collectively define the function, e. g. as a modulator or probe to biological targets. Molecular shape diversity for compound libraries with multiple scaffolds (rich skeletal diversity) is recognized as a prerequisite for discovering broad bioactivity. Established strategies and methodologies for diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) are useful for generating molecular shape diversity by synthesizing natural product-like compounds. On the other hand, diverted total synthesis (DTS) offers natural products and analogues with a higher degree of structural diversity and complexity. Examples of DOS of privileged heterocycles and DTS of amphidinolide T marine macrolides from the author’s laboratories are illustrated.