The purpose of the present review was to provide an up-to-date summary of the bio ecological theory in sport literature. Systematic reviews can facilitate decision-making in areas where randomized control trials (RCTs) have not been performed or are inappropriate. In order to appreciate the status of current knowledge and understanding and to identify potential future directions, the authors conducted a synthesis of published work in sports science using a systematic-review methodology. Published since 1977, Bronfenbrenner's model of human development provided an ecological lens for identifying and synthesizing barriers to sport participation. From a search of electronic databases, findings comprised 1120 identified records, from which only 896 entries were considered. From these a total of 183 published studies relating to the bioecological theory and sports science were assessed, and from this point only articles pertaining to sport related issues were taken into consideration (n = 89) excluding other types of documents (n = 94). The Systematic Review (SR)develops upon these 89 articles and a total of 23 articles were selected for the fourth and final retrieval. A semi quantitative review protocol and standard quality assessment criteria-have dominated the research. The authors conclude by summarizing the key findings in the literature and highlighting the gaps that could be filled by future research.