Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 6 | 1 |

Article title

“Work curve” as a distinguishing mark of athletes’ work performance


Title variants

Languages of publication



Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine work performance in the aspect of work rate, energy, persistence, adaptation rate, and accuracy based on the indices of an athlete’s work curve. Material and methods: Thirty athletes (15 women and 15 men) who practised five sports (swimming, track and field, fencing, judo, and taekwondo) and a control group (30 university students, 15 women and 15 men) participated in a work curve test (Kraepelin). Both groups were equivalent. They were aged 18–25 years, all of them had finished secondary education, and studied at the same university. The analysis concerned indices grouped into 6 factors: quantitative measures of performance, measures of energy and persistence, measures of quick adaptation and efforts without self-restraint, measures of variability, measures of accuracy and diligence, and measures of additional factors. Results: Factor analysis of the work curve revealed a significant difference to the benefit of the athletes (p < 0.001) in the measures of energy and persistence. The results obtained in this study revealed good adaptation of athletes to exercise, resistance to fatigue, and quick process of learning. Conclusions: The results obtained may reflect the adaptation of athletes to long-term physical activity. Therefore, they are characterized by greater involvement and patience. Therefore, it can be concluded that monotonous training that necessitates much energy, concentration of attention, and endurance, and, consequently, high work performance, is one of the most important predictors of athletic activity.







Physical description


10 - 9 - 2014


  • Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Warsaw


  • 1. Arnold W. (1975) Der Pauli-Test. Anweisung zur sachgemässen Durchführung, Auswertung und Anwendung des Kraepelinschen Arbeitsversuches 5., korrigierte Aufl. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1-184.
  • 2. Brandstätter H. (1995) Die Arbeitskurve nach Kraepelin-Pauli – doch ein Willenstest? Zeitschrift für Arbeits – und Organisationspsychol., 39, (N.F. 13) 2: 54-66.
  • 3. Brown S.A., Kunz D., Dumas A., Westermark P.O., Vanselow K., Tilmann-Wahnschaffe A., Herzel H., Kramer A. (2008) Molecular insights into human daily behavior. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 105: 1602–1607.
  • 4. Cavallera G.M., Giudici S. (2008) Morningness and eveningness personality. A survey in literature from 1995 up till 2006. Pers. Individ. Dif., 44: 3–21.
  • 5. Díaz-Morales J.F. (2007) Morning and evening-types. Exploring their personality styles. Pers. Individ. Dif., 43: 769–778.
  • 6. Eysenck H.J. (1986) The theory of intelligence and the psychophysiology of cognition, in: R.J. Sternberg, Advances in the psychology of human intelligence, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 3: 1-34.
  • 7. Fisher R. (2006) ‘Thinking about me: me-cognition’, Teach. Think.Creativ., 20: 50-55.
  • 8. Gaina A., Sekine M., Kanayama H., Takashi Y., Hu L., Sengoku K., Kagamimori S. (2006) Morning-evening preference. Sleep pattern spectrum and lifestyle habits among Japanese junior high school pupils. Chronobiol. Int., 23: 607–621.
  • 9. Goldstein D., Hahn C.S., Hasher L., Wiprzycka U.J., Zelazo P.D. (2007) Time of day, intellectual performance, and behavioral problems in morning versus evening type adolescents. Is there a synchrony effect? Pers. Individ. Dif., 42: 431–440.
  • 10. Hasler B.P., Allen J.J.B., Sbarra D.A., Bootzin R.R., Bernert R.A. (2010) Morningness-eveningness and depression. Preliminary evidence for the role of the behavioral activation system and positive affect. Psych. Res., 176: 166–173.
  • 11. Kanazawa S., Perina K. (2009) Why night owls are more intelligent. Pers. Individ. Dif., 47: 685–690.
  • 12. Kashiwagi S., Tanaka Y., Tsubokura K., Okuyama K., Shinrigaku K. (2007) Evaluation of the Uchida-Kraepelin psycho-diagnostic test based on addition work from the view of the Big Five, Japanese. PMID: 17657974, PubMed., 78(2): 125-32.
  • 13. Kraepelin E. (1922). Gedanken uber die Arbeitskurve, in: Psychol. Arbeit, 7: 535–547.
  • 14. Steinborn M.B., Flehmig H.C., Westhoff K., Langner R. (2009) Differential effects of prolonged work on performance measures in self-paced speed tests. Ad. Cog. Psychol., 5: 105-113.
  • 15. Mikicin M. (2013) Autotelic personality as a predictor of engagement in sports. Biomed. Hum. Kinetics, 5: 65-71.
  • 16. Mikicin M., Kowalczyk M., Wróbel A. (2014) Durable changes in the power of theta, sensorimotor-SMR and beta 1 bands evoked by neurofeedback training is associated with enhanced attention performance in athletes. A.N.E., 74.
  • 17. Murray G., Allen N.B., Rawlings D., Trinder J. (2002) Seasonality and personality. A prospective investigation of Five Factor Model correlates of mood seasonality. E.J.P., 16: 457–468.
  • 18. Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll, Sean P. (2007) Cumming, Effects of a Motivational Climate Intervention for Coaches on Young Athletes’ Sport Performance Anxiety, in: J. Sport Exerc. Psychol., 29: 39-59.
  • 19. Sękowski A., Klinkosz W. (2014) Education of gifted students – an axiological perspective, Gift. Edu. Int., 30: 58-73
  • 20. Selvi Y., Gulec M., Argagun M.Y., Besiroglu L. (2007) Mood changes after sleep deprivation in morningnesseveningness chronotypes in healthy individuals. J. Sleep Res., 16: 241–244.
  • 21. Shinrigaku K. (1985) A factor analytic study of the items for the personality description based on the principle of the three traits theory for the work curve of addition of the Uchida-Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test. Biopsychosoc. Med., 56(3): 179-82.
  • 22. Shinrigaku K. (1995) Evaluation of the Uchida-Kräpelin psychodiagnostic test based on the Five-Factor Model of personality traits, PMID, 7666606, PubMed, 66(1): 24-32.
  • 23. Smith C.S., Folkard S., Schmieder R., Parra L., Spelten E., Almiral H., Sen R.N., Sahu S, Perez L.M., Tisak J. (2002) Investigation of morning-evening orientation in six countries using the preferences scale. Pers. Individ. Dif., 32: 949–968.
  • 24. Strelau J. (1983) A Regulative Theory of Temperament. Austr. J. Psychol., 35: 305–317.
  • 25. Sugimoto K., Kanze A., Shoij N. (2010) SK – Kraepelin Psychological Test, in: www.Latest-science-articles.com.
  • 26. Takigasaki T. (2006) The work curves of Uchida – Kraepelin test in the time of mountaineering, in: Report of researches, N. Institute Tech., 35(3/4): 7–12.
  • 27. Van Dongen H.P.A., Belenky G. (2009) Individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss in the work environment. Industrial Health, 47: 518–526.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.