Teaching healthy behaviour knowledge in primary school physical education
Languages of publication
Study aim: To determine the effectiveness of a newly designed series of fitness segments that can be used to provide healthy behaviour knowledge (HBK) for 5th grade Physical Education classes.Material and methods: 641 pupils from six intervention (n = 401) and five control (n = 240) schools were used. The intervention schools received a five-week intervention of 12-minute fitness segments for each class period. A cognitive test that has been shown to produce valid and reliable scores (28-questions) was used to assess pupils’ HBK at pre – and post – examination. Pedometers were also used to examine physical activity levels differences. Hierarchical Linear Modeling using a two-level multilevel model was used to investigate mean changes in HBK between intervention and control groups.Results: Pupils in the intervention classes had 0.8-unit greater mean improvements in HBK than did control pupils (p < 0.05). Girls also had greater mean changes in HBK than did boys (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between intervention and control groups in physical activity levels.Conclusion: This type of fitness segment can be one strategy used by teachers to aid the instruction of HBK without decreasing physical activity participation in classes.
2 - 6 - 2014
- 1. Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007) Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey: South Australian Findings.
- 2. Brousseau T.A., P.H. Kulinna, D.J. Cothran (2011) Physical activity content knowledge of Native American children. The Physical Educator, 68: 66-77.
- 3. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/health_and_academics/pdf/pape_executive_summary.pdf
- 4. Corbin C.B., R. Lindsey (2006) Fitness for Life. 5th ed. Human Kinetics, Champaign.
- 5. Currie C., A. Zanotti, D. Morgan, M. Currie, C. deLooze, O. Roberts, O. Samdal, R.F. Smith, V. Barnekow (2012) Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health behaviour in school-aged children (BSC) study: International report from the 2009/2010 survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, 6(1): 252.
- 6. Dale D., C.B. Corbin, T.F. Cuddihy (1998) Can conceptual Physical Education promote physical active lifestyles? Pediatric Exercise Science, 10: 97-109.
- 7. Desmond S.M, J.H. Price, R.S. Smith, D. Smith, P.W. Stewart (1990) Urban black and white adolescents’ physical fitness status and perceptions of exercise. Journal of School Health, 60: 313-314.
- 8. Dilorenzo T.M., R.C. Stucky-Ropp, J.S. Vander Wal, H.J. Gotham (1998) Determinants of exercise among children: A longitudinal analysis. Preventive Medicine, 27: 470–477.[Crossref]
- 9. Doyle W. (1977) Paradigms of research for teacher effectiveness. Review of Research in Education, 5: 163-198.
- 10. Fox K.R., S.J. Biddle (1998) The use of fitness tests: Educational and psychological considerations. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 59: 47-53.
- 11. Hopple C., G. Graham (1995) What children think, feel, and know about physical fitness testing. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 14: 408-417.
- 12. Kahn E.B., L.T. Ramsey, R.C. Brownson, G.W. Heath, E.H. Howze, K.E. Powell, P. Corso (2002) The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity. A systematic review. American Journal of Prevention Medicine, 22: 73-107.
- 13. Keating X.D., L. Chen, J. Guan, L. Harrison, B. Dauenhauer (2009) Urban minority 9th grade pupils’ health-related fitness knowledge. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80: 747-755.[Crossref]
- 14. Kedler S., D.M. Hoelscher, C.S. Barroso, J.L. Walker, P. Cribb, S. Hu (2003) The CATCH Kids Club: A pilot after-school study for improving elementary students’ nutrient and physical activity. Publich Helath Nutrition, 8: 133-140. DOI: 10.1079/PHN20004678.[Crossref]
- 15. Kulinna P.H., (2004) Physical activity and fitness knowledge: How much 1–6 grade pupils know? International Journal of Physical Education, 41: 111-121.
- 16. Liang M.T., H.T. Dombrowski, T.W. Allen, C.O. Chang, J. Andriulli, M. Bastianelli, S.D. Norris (1993) Do medical pupils’ knowledge and attitudes about health and exercise affect their physical fitness? Journal of American Osteopathic Association, 93: 1020-1024.
- 17. Luepker R.V., C.L. Perry, S.M. Mckinlay, P.R. Nader, G.S. Parcel, E.J. Stone, C.C. Johnson (1996) Outcomes of a field trial to improve children’s dietary patterns and physical activity. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health CATCH collaborative group. Journal of the American Medical Association, 13: 768-776.[Crossref]
- 18. National Association for Sport and Physical Education and American Heart Association (NASPE) (2012). Shape of the Nation Report: Status of Physical Education in the USA. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston.
- 19. National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (2010) PE Metrics: Assessing National Standards 1-6 in Primary School. American alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston.
- 20. National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (2004) Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education, 2nd edition. American alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston.
- 21. Sallis J.F., T.L. McKenzie, J.E. Alcaraz, B. Kolody, N. Faucette, M.F. Hovell (1996) The effects of a 2-year Physical Education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in primary school pupils. American Journal of Public Health, 87: 1328-1334.
- 22. Sallis J.F., T.L. McKenzie, M.W. Beets, A. Beighle, H. Erwin, S. Lee (2012) Physical Education’s role in public health: Steps forward and backward over 20 years and HOPE for the future. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83: 125-135.
- 23. Palmer S., G. Graham, E. Eloise (2005) Effects of a web-based health program on fifth grade children’s physical activity knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. American Journal of Health Education, 36: 86-93.
- 24. Pangrazi R.P, A. Beighle, D. Pangrazi (2009) Promoting Physical Activity and Health in the Classroom. Benjamin Cummings Pearson, San Francisco.
- 25. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/shpps/2006/factsheets/pdf/FS_PhysicalEducation_SHPPS2006.pdf.
- 26. Solmon M.A. (2006) Learner Cognition. In: D. Kirk, D. Macdonald and M. O’Sullivan, (eds.) Handbook of Physical Education. London, UK. SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 226-240.
- 27. Spiegel S.A., D. Foulk (2006) Reducing overweight through a multidisciplinary school-based intervention. Obesity, 14: 88-96.[Crossref]
- 28. Thomas K.T. (2004) Riding to the rescue while holding on by a thread: Physical activity in the schools. Quest, 56: 150-170.[Crossref]
- 29. Thompson A., J.C. Hannon (2012) Health-related fitness knowledge and physical activity of high school pupils. The Physical Educator, 4: 71-88.
- 30. Trost S.G., A.M. Morgan, R. Saunders, G. Felton, D.S. Ward, R.R. Pate (2000) Children’s understanding of the concept of physical activity. Pediatric Exercise Science, 12: 293-299.
- 31. Zhu W., M. Safarit, A. Cohen (1999) The National Health-Related Physical Fitness Knowledge Test: FitSmart Test User Manual (High School Edition). Champaign, Human Kinetics.
Publication order reference