The reactions of substituted furo[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxhydrazides 1 with 5-arylfuran-2-carboxaldehydes 2, 4,5-disubstituted furan-2-carboxaldehydes 3 and thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde 4 has been studied. The advantage of microwave irradiation on some of these reactions was reflected in the reduced reaction time and increased yields. Reactions of 1 with 4-substituted 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones 11 led to diacylhydrazines 13 or to imidazole derivatives 14 depending on the temperature. 1,2,4-Triazole-3-thione 17 was synthesized by two-step reaction of 1 with phenylisothiocyanate and subsequent base-catalyzed cyclization of thiosemicarbazide 16. The effects of hydrazones 5–10 on inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts and chlorophyll content in the antialgal suspensions of Chlorella vulgaris were investigated.