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2015 | 17 | 3 | 19-23

Article title

Speciation of heavy metals during co-composting of livestock manure


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Heavy metals determination in manures provides beneficial information to predict the availability and the potential contamination of environment. Therefore, a study was carried out to investigate heavy metals changes in livestock manure during a co-composting process. The metals were stepwise fractionated into exchangeable, adsorbed, organically bound, carbonate precipitated and residual forms by extracting with 0.5M KNO3, de-ionized water, 0.5M NaOH, 0.05M Na2EDTA and 4M HNO3, respectively. During the extraction process, the amount of metals remained highly dependent on an extraction method and stage of manure composting. Extractions released heavy metals contents in the final composted manure as Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cd. Irrespective of the days of composting, extracting agents differed in the order HNO3 > Na2EDTA > NaOH > KNO3 > H2O for all heavy metals. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were observed during the early stages of composting. Conversely, there was a progressive increase in the concentrations of K, Ca and Mg during composting of manure. Total C in the manure reduced with composting days.









Physical description


1 - 9 - 2015
19 - 9 - 2015


  • University of Haripur, Department of Environmental Sciences, Hattar Road Haripur, Pakistan
  • University of Haripur, Department of Environmental Sciences, Hattar Road Haripur, Pakistan
  • University of Kurdistan, Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, Hewler, Iraq
  • University of Haripur, Department of Environmental Sciences, Hattar Road Haripur, Pakistan
  • COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences, Abbottabad, Pakistan


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