Radiation preservation of objects of historical significance is an interesting proposition for museums, archives, libraries and private collectors. In this paper, we have limited ourselves to studying the effects of ionizing radiation on the paper. The radiation resistance of various grades of paper was examined in INCT. Irradiations were done by electron beam (10 MeV, 10 kW) and by gamma radiation (7 kG/h), for the purpose of comparison. Yields of hydrogen and absorption of oxygen were determined by gas chromatography (GC). For this purpose, the first time in an original way was used diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). Described as the dose, dose rate, and lignin were found to affect degradation processes of cellulose. Examined the protective effect of lignin in the process of radiation degradation of paper. Proposed research methodology can be successfully applied to study other materials relevant to the conservation of works of art.