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2015 | 60 | 3 | 665-668

Article title

The use of DRS and GC to study the effects of ionizing radiation on paper artifacts


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Radiation preservation of objects of historical significance is an interesting proposition for museums, archives, libraries and private collectors. In this paper, we have limited ourselves to studying the effects of ionizing radiation on the paper. The radiation resistance of various grades of paper was examined in INCT. Irradiations were done by electron beam (10 MeV, 10 kW) and by gamma radiation (7 kG/h), for the purpose of comparison. Yields of hydrogen and absorption of oxygen were determined by gas chromatography (GC). For this purpose, the first time in an original way was used diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). Described as the dose, dose rate, and lignin were found to affect degradation processes of cellulose. Examined the protective effect of lignin in the process of radiation degradation of paper. Proposed research methodology can be successfully applied to study other materials relevant to the conservation of works of art.










Physical description


1 - 9 - 2015
20 - 5 - 2015
21 - 10 - 2014
25 - 9 - 2015


  • Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, 16 Dorodna Str., 03-195 Warsaw, Poland, Tel.: +48 22 504 1288, Fax: +48 22 811 1532
  • Department of Printing Techniques, Institute of Mechanics and Printing, Faculty of Production Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 85 Narbutta Str., 02-524 Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Printing Techniques, Institute of Mechanics and Printing, Faculty of Production Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 85 Narbutta Str., 02-524 Warsaw, Poland
  • Institute of Geology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 51/55 Twarda Str., 00-818 Warsaw, Poland and Institute of Radiation Problems of AzNAS, Azerbaijan


  • 1. Area, M. C., Calvo, A. M., Felissia, E. F., Docters, A., & Miranda, M. V. (2014). Influence of dose and dose rate on the physical properties of commercial papers commonly used in libraries and archives. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 96, 217-222. DOI: 10.1016/j. radphyschem.2013.10.004.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 2. Cortella, L., Tran, K. Q., Głuszewski, W. J., Moise, I. V., & Ponta, C. C. (2011). Nuclear techniques for preservation of cultural heritage artefacts. In IAEA Technical Cooperation Project - RER 8015: Using Nuclear Techniques for the Characterization and Preservation of Cultural Heritage Artefacts in the European Region. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
  • 3. Moise, I. V., Virgolici, M., Negut, C. D., Manea, M., Alexandru, M., Trandafi r, L., Zorila, F. L., Talasman, C. M., Manea, D., Nisipeanu, S., Haiducu, M., & Balan, Z. (2012). Establishing the irradiation dose for paper decontamination. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 81(8), 1045-1050. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2011.11.063.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 4. Bankole, O. M. (2010). A review of biological deterioration of library materials and possible control strategies in the tropics. Library Rev., 59(6), 414-429. DOI: 10.1108/00242531011053931.[Crossref]
  • 5. Sterflinger, K., & Pinzari, F. (2012). The revenge of time: fungal deterioration of cultural heritage with particular reference to books, paper and parchment. Environ. Microbiol., 14(3), 559-566. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02584.x.[WoS][Crossref]
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  • 7. Bansa, H. (1981). The conservation of library collections in tropical and sub-tropical condition: the problem of increased dangers of damage and decay in areas of high temperature and humidity. IFLA J., 7(3), 264 -267. DOI: 10.1177/034003528100700308.[Crossref]
  • 8. Choi, J., Chung, Y. J., Kang, D. I., Lee, K. S., & Lee, J. -W. (2012). Effect of radiation on disinfection and mechanical properties of Korean traditional paper, Hanji. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 81, 1051-1054. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2011.11.019.[Crossref]
  • 9. Da Silva, M., Moraes, A., Nishikawa, M., Gatti, M., Vallim de Alencar, M., Brandao, L., & Nobrega, A. (2006). Inactivation of fungi from deteriorated paper materials by radiation. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 57(3), 163-167. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2006.02.003.[Crossref]
  • 10. Katušin-Ražem, B., Ražem, D., & Braun, M. (2009). Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 78, 729-731. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem. 2009.03.048.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 11. Magaudda, G. (2004). The recovery of biodeteriorated books and archive documents through gamma irradiation: some considerations on the results achieved. J. Cultural Heritage, 5(1), 113-118. DOI: 10.1016/j. culher.2006.02.007.[Crossref]
  • 12. Bouchard, J., Méthot, M., & Jordan, B. (2006). The effects of ionizing radiation on the cellulose of woodfree paper. Cellulose, 13(5), 601-610. DOI: 10.1007/ s10570-005-9033-0.[Crossref]
  • 13. D’Almeida, M. L. O., Barbosa, P. D. S. M., Boaratti, M. F. G., & Borrely, S. I. (2009). Radiation effects on the integrity of paper. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 78(7/8), 489-492. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2013.10.004.[WoS][Crossref]
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  • 15. Głuszewski, W., Zagórski, Z. P., & Rajkiewicz, M. (2014). Protective effects in radiation modifi cation of elastomers. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 105, 36-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2014.06.024.[Crossref]
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