The popular pharmaceutical base used in pharmacy – vaselinum flavum – was studied by an X-band (9.3 GHz) EPR spectrometer in the range of microwave power of 2.2–70 mW. The samples were sterilized in hot air oven at temperatures: 160°C (120 min), 170°C (60 min), and 180°C (30 min). The aim of this work was to determine properties and free radical concentrations in vaselinum flavum thermally sterilized at different conditions. The changes in free radical system in vaselinum flavum during storage were analyzed. Free radicals were found in all the heated samples. The lowest free radical concentration was obtained for vaselinum flavum heated at 180°C for 30 min; so these parameters are proposed for the thermal sterilization of this pharmaceutical base. Interactions with oxygen decreased free radical concentration in vaselinum flavum during storage. Strong quenching of free radicals in vaselinum flavum was observed after 2 days for the samples sterilized at temperatures 160 and 180°C. Such an effect for vaselinum flavum heated at temperature 170°C was observed later, 13 days after sterilization. Fast spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in thermally sterilized vaselinum flavum. The EPR lines of heated vaselinum flavum were homogeneously broadened. EPR spectroscopy and its use for examining the thermal sterilization process in pharmacy was confirmed.