The study aimed to evaluate the influence of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) evaluation and rehabilitation education guidance on the respiratory and motor functions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Forty-five patients with COPD admitted from Nov. 2012 to Nov. 2013 were treated with combined bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. Thirty-five patients admitted from Nov. 2012 to Nov. 2013 and classified as a study group received rehabilitation education guidance on the basis of the treatment of the control group to compare the quality-of-life-scale score, dyspnea index score, and motor function of the two groups of patients after 48 weeks of treatment. After treatment, the CAT score of both groups of patients was significantly lowered. After 48 weeks of treatment, the respiratory function of both groups was significantly improved, but the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale for the study group after treatment was significantly lower than that for the control group. After 48 weeks of rehabilitation exercises, the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) for patients with COPD was significantly prolonged, but the test results were significantly higher for the study group after treatment than for the control group. After receiving CAT rehabilitation education, COPD patients had significantly improved life quality and significantly enhanced exercise tolerance. The treatment mode may be gradually introduced in future clinic and nursing work.