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2014 | 10 | 1 |

Article title

Attempt to assess the infiltration of enamel made
with experimental preparation using a scanning
electron microscope


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Introduction: The resin infiltration technique,
a minimally invasive method, involves the saturation,
strengthening, and stabilization of demineralized enamel
by a mixture of polymer resins without the need to use
rotary tools or the risk of losing healthy tooth structures. Aim of the study: 1. To design and synthesize an experimental infiltrant
with potential bacteriostatic properties. 2. To compare the depth of infiltration of the designed
experimental preparation with the infiltrant available
in the market using a scanning electron microscope. Material and Methods: Composition of the experimental
infiltrant was established after analysis of 1H NMR
spectra of the commercially available compounds that
can penetrate pores of demineralized enamel. As the infiltrant
should have bacteriostatic features by definition,
an addition of 1% of monomer containing metronidazole
was made. Thirty extracted human teeth were soaked in
an acidic solution, which was to provide appropriate conditions
for demineralization of enamel. Afterward, each
tooth was divided along the coronal-root axis into two
zones. One zone had experimental preparation applied to
it (the test group), while the other had commercially available
Icon (the control group). The teeth were dissected
along the long axis and described above underwent initial
observation with use of a Hitachi S-4200 scanning electron
microscope. Results: It was found that all samples contained only
oxygen and carbon, regardless of the concentration of
additions introduced into them. The occurrence of carbon
is partially because it is a component of the preparation in question and partially because of sputtering of the sample
with it. Hydrogen is also a component of the preparation,
as a result of its phase composition; however, it cannot be
detected by the EDS method. Conclusions: 1. SEM, in combination with X-ray microanalysis, does
not allow one to explicitly assess the depth of penetration
of infiltration preparations into enamel. 2. In order to assess the depth of penetration of infiltration
preparations with use of X-ray microanalysis, it
is recommended to introduce a contrast agent that is
approved for use in dental materials, such as ytterbium
III fluoride.








Physical description


18 - 3 - 2015
29 - 12 - 2014
3 - 4 - 2015


  • Department
    of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, Medical University of
    Silesia in Katowice, Plac Akademicki 17, 41-902 Bytom


  • [1] Kielbassa A.M., Mueller J., and Gernhardt C.R., Closing thegap between oral hygiene and minimally invasive dentistry: areview on the resin infiltration technique of incipient (proximal)enamel lesions, Quintessence Int., 2009, 40, 663-681
  • [2] Skucha-Nowak M., Tanasiewicz M., Gibas M,. and Twardawa H,.Barriers securing the patient’s own tissues against influenceof the oral cavity environment than can be used in low invasivedentistry, Pol J Environ Stud., 2012, 21, 25-29
  • [3] Soviero V.M., Paris S., Leal S.C., Azevedo R.B., and Meyer-Lueckel H., Ex vivo evaluation of caries infiltration afterdifferent application times in primary molars, Caries Res.,2013, 47, 110-116[Crossref][WoS]
  • [4] Paris S., Meyer-Lueckel H., Cölfen H., and Kielbassa A.M., Resininfiltration of artificial enamel caries lesions with experimentallight curing resins, Dent Mater J., 2007, 26, 582-588[WoS][Crossref]
  • [5] Skucha-Nowak M., Tanasiewicz M., Gibas M., and Twardawa H.,Analysis of the composition of preparations used as a barierto protect tissues of the patient against the influence of theenvironment In the oral cavity, Pol J Environ Stud., 2013, 22,53-57
  • [6] Meyer-Lueckel H., Chatzidakis A., Naumann M., Dörfer C.E.,and Paris S., Influence of application time on penetration of aninfiltrant into natural enamel caries, J Dent, 2011, 39, 465-469[Crossref][WoS]
  • [7] Yang F., Mueller J., and Kielbassa A.M., Surface substance lossof subsurface bovine enamel lesions after different steps ofthe resinous infiltration technique: a 3D topography analysis,Odontology, 2012, 100, 172-180[WoS][Crossref]
  • [8] Twardawa H., Gibas M., Tanasiewicz M., KajewskaK., Mocny-Pachońska K., and Skucha-Nowak M., Researchon experimental agent for treating dentin hypersensitivity. I.Concept of chemical formulation, Adv Clin Exp Med., – In Press.
  • [9] Imazato S., Antibacterial properties of resin composites anddentin bonding systems, Dent Mater, 2003, 19, 449-457[Crossref]
  • [10] Mueller J., Yang F., Neumann K., and Kielbassa AM., Surfacetridimensional topography analysis of materials and finishingprocedures after resinous infiltration of subsurface bovineenamel lesions, Quintessence Int, 2011, 42, 135-147.
  • [11] Meyer-Lueckel H., and Paris S., Progression of artificial enamelcaries lesions after infiltration with experimental light curingresins, Caries Res, 2008, 42,117-124[WoS][Crossref]
  • [12] Ramesh Kumar K.R., Shanta Sundari K.K., Venkatesan A., andChandrasekar S., Depth of resin penetration into enamel with 3types of enamel conditioning methods: a confocal microscopicstudy, Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2011, 140,479-485
  • [13] Buzalaf M.A., Hannas A.R., Magalhães A.C., Rios D., HonórioH.M., and Delbem A.C., pH-cycling models for in vitroevaluation of the efficacy of fluoridated dentifrices for cariescontrol: strengths and limitations, J Appl Oral Sci, 2010, 18,316-334
  • [14] Mellberg J.R, Hard-tissue substrates for evaluation ofcariogenic and anti-cariogenic activity in situ, J Dent Res, 1992,71, 913-919
  • [15] Meyer-Lueckel H., Paris S., and Kielbassa A.M., Surfacelayer erosion of natural caries lesions with phosphoric andhydrochloric acid gels in preparation for resin infiltration,Caries Res, 2007, 41, 223-230[WoS][Crossref]
  • [16] Meyer-Lueckel H., and Paris S., Improved resin infiltration ofnatural caries lesions, J Dent Res, 2008, 87, 1112-1116[WoS]
  • [17] Gomez S., Uribe S., Onetto J.E., and Emilson C.G., SEM Analysisof Sealant Penertation In Posterior Approximal Enamel CariousLesions In Vivo. The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, 2008,10,151-156

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