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2014 | 10 | 1 |

Article title

Effects of hypothermia on skeletal ischemia
reperfusion injury in rats


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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate
the effect of hypothermia (H) on skeletal ischemia-reperfusion
(IR) injury in rats by measuring malondialdehyde
(MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase
(GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-1 beta
(IL-1β) in muscle, and measureing immunohistochemical-
inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) staining of skeletal
muscle. Materials and Methods: Eighteen Wistar Albino rats were
divided randomly into three groups (sham, IR, hypothermia)
(n=6). The sham group had all procedures without
the IR period. The lower right extremity of rats in the IR
and hypothermia groups was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia
and 22 hours of reperfusion by applying a clamp on
the common iliac artery and a rubber-band at the level of
the lesser trochanter under general anesthesia. Rats in the
hypothermia group underwent 4 hours of hypothermia
during the first four hours of reperfusion in addition to a
2-hour ischemia and 22-hour reperfusion period. All rats were sacrificed at end of the IR period using a high dose of
anesthesia. The tibialis anterior muscles were preserved.
Immunohistochemical iNOS staining was performed, and
MDA, SOD, GSH-Px, NO, and IL-1β were measured in the
muscle. Results: The level of MDA, NO, and IL-1β in muscle was
increased in the IR group compared with that in the sham
group, but these parameters were decreased in the hypothermia
group compared with the IR group. The activities
of SOD and GSH-Px in muscle were decreased in the IR
group; however, these parameters were increased in the
hypothermia group. The score and intensity of iNOS staining
of skeletal muscle was dens in IR group, mild in hypothermia
group, and weak in sham group. Conclusion: The present study has shown that hypothermia
reduced IR injury in the skeletal muscle by decreasing
the levels of MDA, NO, and IL-1β, and increasing the
activities of SOD and GSH-Px. In addition, hypothermia
attenuated the score and intensity of iNOS staining.









Physical description


12 - 1 - 2015
14 - 4 - 2014
27 - 2 - 2015


  • Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya Military Hospital, Malatya, Turkey
  • Department of Emergency Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
  • Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya Military Hospital, Malatya, Turkey
  • Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Haydarpaşa Military Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
  • Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
  • Department of General Surgery, Mevki Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
  • Department of Emergency Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
  • Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Bursa Military Hospital, Bursa, Turkey
  • Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
  • Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Erzurum Military Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey
  • Department of Physiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
  • Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey


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