PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
Journal
2014 | 10 | 1 |
Article title

Risk factors involved in orofacial cleft
predisposition – review

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
Clefts that occur in children are a special topic.
Avoiding risk factors, and also an early diagnosis of cleft
possibility can result in minimizing or avoiding them.
If on the other hand when clefts occur they require a
long-term, multistage specialized treatment. Etiology of
clefts seems to be related to many factors. Factors such
as genetic, environmental, geographic and even race
factors are important. Identification of risk factors can
lead to prevention and prophylactic behaviors in order
to minimize its occurrence. Exposure to environmental
factors at home and work that lead to cleft predisposition
should not be disregarded. It seems that before planning
a family it would be wise to consult with doctors of different
specializations, especially in high-risk families with
cleft history in order to analyze previous lifestyle. Clefts
are very common in hereditary facial malformations and
are causing a lot of other irregularities in the head and
neck region. In this paper after a brief papers review
authors present socio-geographic, environmental and
also work place related factors that are influencing pregnant
women condition and should be taken under serious
consideration.
Publisher
Journal
Year
Volume
10
Issue
1
Physical description
Dates
accepted
11 - 12 - 2014
online
5 - 2 - 2015
received
9 - 9 - 2013
References
  • [1] Litin S. Mayo Clinic Family Health Book. 2009: 4th edition.
  • [2] Vieira AR, Orioli IM. Birth order and oral clefts: a meta-analysis.Teratol. 2002;11; 66(5): 209-216[Crossref]
  • [3] Das SK, Runnels RS, Smith JC et al. Epidemiology of cleft lipand cleft palate in Mississippi. South Med J 1995; 88: 437-442.S. Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol. 2003; 67(9): 637-642
  • [4] Yoon PW, Merz R, Forrester M. The effect of maternal race onoral clefts in Hawaii. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: S3
  • [5] Mossey PA, Little J, Munger RG, Dixon MJ, Shaw WC. Cleft lipand palate. Lancet. 2009: 21; 374(9703): 1773-1785
  • [6] Mars M, Houston W.J.: A preliminary study of facial growthand morphology in unoperated male unilateral cleft lip andpalate subjects over 13 years of age. Cleft Palate J. 1990; 1;27(1):7-10[Crossref]
  • [7] Sforza C, Ferrario VF. Three-dimensional analysisof facial morphology: growth, development and aging of theorolabial region. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2010; 115(1-2):141-145
  • [8] Kreiborg S, Herman NV, Darvann TA. Cleft Lip and Palate:Characteristics of Facial Morphology and Growth in Infants withClefts. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2006: 3; 225-235
  • [9] Mossey PA, Batra P, McIntyre GT. The Parental DentocraniofacialPhenotype - An Orofacial Clefting Microform. Cleft Palate-CraniofacJ. 2010; 47:1, 22-34
  • [10] Cohen MM. Syndromes with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate. CleftPalate J. 1978: 15; 4; 306-328
  • [11] Venkatesh R. Syndromes and anomalies associated with cleft.Indian J Plast Surg. 2009; 42(Suppl): S51–S55[Crossref]
  • [12] Bille C, Winther JF, Bautz A. Cancer risk in persons withoral cleft-a population-based study of 8,093 cases. Am JEpidemiol. 2005; 1; 161(11): 1047-1055
  • [13] Hunt O, Burden D, Hepper P. The psychosocial effects of cleft lipand palate: a systematic review. Eur J Orthod. 2005; 6; 27(3):274-285[Crossref]
  • [14] Sedano HO, Carreon Freyre I, Garza de la Garza ML, GomarFranco CM, Grimaldo Hernandez C, Hernandez MontoyaME, Hipp C, Keenan KM, Martinez Bravo J, Medina López JA.Clinical orodental abnormalities in Mexican children. Oral SurgOral Med Oral Pathol. 1989; 9; 68 (3): 300-311
  • [15] Chatzistavrou E, Bruce Ross R, Tompson BD, Johnston MC.Predisposing Factors to Formation of Cleft Lip and Palate:Inherited Craniofacial Skeletal Morphology. The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. 2004; 11, 41; 613-621
  • [16] Wang W, Guan P, Xu W, Zhou B. Risk factors for oral clefts: apopulation-based case-control study in Shenyang, China.Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2009; 7; 23(4):310-320[Crossref]
  • [17] Bille C, Skytthe A, Vach W, Knudsen LB, Andersen AM, MurrayJC, Christensen K. Parent’s age and the risk of oral clefts.Epidemiology. Am J Hum Genet. 2007; 1; 80(1): 76-90
  • [18] Butali A, Mossey P. Epidemiology of orofacial clefts in Africa:Methodological challenges in ascertainment. Pan Afr Med J.2009; 2:5
  • [19] Adetayo O, Ford R, Martin M. Africa has unique and urgentbarriers to cleft care: lessons from practitioners at thepan-african congress on cleft lip and palate. Pan Afr MedJ. 2012; 12: 15
  • [20] Adetayo OA, Martin MC. Demographics of cleft care providersin Africa and reported experience in training and practice:direct analysis of continent-based practitioners. Cleft PalateCraniofac J. 2012; 5; 49(3): 286-290
  • [21] Elahi MM, Jackson IT, Elahi O, Khan AH, Mubarak F, TariqGB, Mitra A. Epidemiology of cleft lip and cleft palate inPakistan. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004; 5; 113(6): 1548-1555[Crossref]
  • [22] Dai L, Miao L, Zhou GX, Zhu J, Li G. The prevalence analysisof cleft palate in Chinese perinatals: 1996-2000. Hua Xi KouQiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004; 4; 22(1): 35-37
  • [23] Pradubwong S, Lekbunyasin O, Chantachum V, UdomtanasupS, Simmalee K, Chowchuen B. Application of GeographicInformation System (GIS) for management of cleft lip-palatecare at the Tawanchai Cleft Center. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;10;93 Suppl 4: S 58-62
  • [24] Rabbitts JA, Groenewald CB, Räsänen J. Geographic differencesin perioperative opioid administration in children. PaediatrAnaesth. 2012;7; 22(7):676-681[Crossref]
  • [25] Root ED. Moving neighborhoods and health research forward:using geographic methods to examine the role of spatial scalein neighborhood effects on health. Ann Assoc Am Geogr. 2012;9 1; 102(5): 986-995[Crossref]
  • [26] Salemi JL, Tanner JP, Kennedy S, Block S, Bailey M, CorreiaJA, Watkins SM, Kirby RS. A comparison of two surveillancestrategies for selected birth defects in Florida. Public HealthRep. 2012; 7-8; 127(4): 391-400
  • [27] Amidei RL, Hamman RF, Kassebaum DK, Marshall JA.Birth prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Colorado by sexdistribution, seasonality, race/ethnicity, and geographicvariation.Spec Care Dentist. 1999; 11-12; 14(6): 233-240
  • [28] Acuña-González G, Medina-Solís CE, Maupomé G, Escoffie-Ramírez M, Hernández-Romano J, Márquez-Corona M de L,Islas-Márquez AJ, Villalobos-Rodelo JJ. Family history andsocioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip andpalate: A matched case-control study in a less developedcountry. Biomédica. 2011; 31; 3; 381-391
  • [29] Rodrigues K, Fernandes de Sena M, Roncalli ÂG, FernandesFerreira MÂ. Prevalence of orofacial clefts and social factors inBrazil. Braz Oral Res. 2009; 23(1): 38-42[Crossref]
  • [30] Poletta FA, Castilla EE, Orioli IM, Lopez-Camelo JS. Regionalanalysis on the occurrence of oral clefts in South America. Am JMed Genet A. 2007; 12 15; 143 A (24):3216-3227
  • [31] Ulucan K, Akçay A, Ersoy B, Kiraç D, Akçay T, Ergeç D, Güney AI.Regional dispersion of non-syndromic cleft lip with/without palate Turkish children patients and possible geographicaleffects. MÜSBED. 2012; 2(4): 164-168
  • [32] Silberstein E, Silberstein T, Elhanan E, Bar-Droma E, Bogdanov-Berezovsky A, Rosenberg L. Epidemiology of cleft lip and palateamong Jews and Bedouins in the Negev. Isr Med Assoc J. 2012;6; 14(6): 378-381
  • [33] Dai L, Zhu J, Liang J, Wang Y-P, Wang H, Mao M. Birth defectssurveillance in China. World J Pediatr 2011; 7(4): 302-310.[Crossref]
  • [34] Durning P, Chestnutt IG, Morgan MZ, Lester NJ. The relationshipbetween orofacial clefts and material deprivation in wales.Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2007; 3; 44(2): 203-207
  • [35] Magdalenić-Mestrović M, Bagatin M. An epidemiological studyof orofacial clefts in Croatia 1988-1998. J CraniomaxillofacSurg. 2005; 4; 33(2): 85-90
  • [36] Bell JC, Raynes-Greenow C, Bower C, Turner RM, RobertsCL, Nassar N. Descriptive epidemiology of cleft lipand cleft palate in Western Australia. Birth Defects Res A ClinMol Teratol. 2013; 4; 97(2): 101-108[Crossref]
  • [37] Lace B, Kempa I, Piekuse L, Grinfelde I, Klovins J, PlissL, Krumina A, Vieira AR. Association studies of candidate genesand cleft lip and palate taking into consideration geographicalorigin. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011; 12; 119(6): 413-417[Crossref]
  • [38] Johnson CY, Honein MA, Hobbs CA, Rasmussen SA, nationalbirth defects prevention study. Prenatal diagnosis of orofacialclefts, national birth defects prevention study, 1998-2004.Prenat Diagn. 2009; 9; 2 9(9): 833-839
  • [39] Cousley RRJ, Roberts-Harry D. An Audit of the YorkshireRegional Cleft Database. J Orthodontics. 2000; 27; 4; 319-322[Crossref]
  • [40] Baird PA, Sadovnick AD, Yee IM. Maternal age and oral cleftmalformations: Data from a population-based series of 576,815consecutive livebirths. Teratology 1994; 49: 448-451
  • [41] Vieira AR, Orioli IM, Murray JC. Maternal age and oral clefts: areappraisal. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod.2002; 11; 94(5): 530-535[Crossref]
  • [42] DeRoo L, Gaudino J, Edmonds L. Orofacial cleft malformatioins:associates with maternal and infant characteristics inWashington state. Birth defects research (part A) 67: 637-642
  • [43] Shaw GM, Croen LA, Curry CJ. Isolated oral cleft malformations:associations with maternal and infant characteristics in aCalifornia population. Teratol 1991; 43:225‑228[Crossref]
  • [44] Miller LC, Chan W, Litvinova A, Rubin A, Comfort K, TirellaL, Cermak S, Morse B, Kovalev I, Boston-Murmansk OrphanageResearch Team. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in childrenresiding in Russian orphanages: a phenotypic survey.Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006; 30(3): 531-538[Crossref]
  • [45] Molina-Solana R, Yáñez-Vico RM, Iglesias-Linares A, Mendoza-Mendoza A, Solano-Reina E. Current concepts on the effectof environmental factors on cleft lip and palate. Int J OralMaxillofac Surg. 2013; 42(2): 177-184[Crossref]
  • [46] Lebby KD, Tan F, Brown CP. Maternal factors and disparitiesassociated with oral clefts. Ethn Dis. 2010; 20(1 Suppl 1):S1-146-149
  • [47] Leite IC, Koifman S. Oral clefts, consanguinity, parental tobacco and alcohol use: a case-control study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Braz Oral Res. 2009; 23(1): 31-37[Crossref]
  • [48] Honein MA, Rasmussen SA, Reefhuis J, Romitti PA, LammerEJ, Sun L, Correa A. Maternal smoking and environmentaltobacco smoke exposure and the risk of orofacial clefts.Epidemiol. 2007; 3; 18(2):226-233[Crossref]
  • [49] Díaz Casado GH, Díaz Grávalos GJ. Orofacial closuredefects: Cleft lip and palate. A literature review.Semergen. 2013;39(5):267-271[Crossref]
  • [50] Brito LA, Cruz LA, Rocha KM, Barbara LK, Silva CB, Bueno DF,et al. Genetic contribution for non-syndromic cleft lip with orwithout cleft palate (NS CL/P) in different regions of Braziland implications for association studies. Am J Med GenetA. 2011;155A(7):1581-1587
  • [51] Basseri B, Kianmahd BD, Roostaeian J, Kohan E, WassonKL, Basseri RJ, et al. Current national incidence, trends, andhealth care resource utilization of cleft lip-cleft palate. PlastReconstr Surg. 2011;127(3):1255-1262[Crossref]
  • [52] Vujkovic M, Ocke MC, van der Spek PJ, YazdanpanahN, Steegers EA, Steegers-Theunissen RP. Maternal Westerndietary patterns and the risk of developing a cleft lip withor without a cleft palate. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(2 Pt1):378-384[Crossref]
  • [53] Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Wasserman CR, O’Malley CD, TolarovaMM. Risks of orofacial clefts in children born to womenusing multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally.Lancet. 1995;346(8972):393-396
  • [54] O’Neill J. Do folic acid supplements reduce facial clefts? EvidBased Dent. 2008;9(3):82-83
  • [55] Kelly D, O’Dowd T, Reulbach U. Use of folic acid supplementsand risk of cleft lip and palate in infants: a population-basedcohort study. Br J Gen Pract. 2012;62(600):466-472[Crossref]
  • [56] Wilcox AJ, Lie RT, Solvoll K, Taylor J, McConnaughey DR,Abyholm F, et al. Folic acid supplements and risk of facial clefts:national population based case-control study. BMJ.2007;334(7591):464
  • [57] Little J, Gilmour M, Mossey PA, Fitzpatrick D, CardyA, Clayton-Smith J, et al. Folate and clefts of the lipand palate-a U.K.-based case-control study: Part I:Dietary and supplemental folate. Cleft Palate CraniofacJ. 2008;45(4):420-427
  • [58] Badovinac RL, Werler MM, Williams PL, Kelsey KT, Hayes C. Folicacid-containing supplement consumption during pregnancyand risk for oral clefts: a meta-analysis. Birth Defects Res A ClinMol Teratol. 2007;79(1):8-15[Crossref]
  • [59] Yazdy MM, Honein MA, Xing J. Reduction in orofacial cleftsfollowing folic acid fortification of the U.S. grain supply. BirthDefects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79(1):16-23[Crossref]
  • [60] Canfield MA, Collins JS, Botto LD, Williams LJ, Mai CT, KirbyRS, et al. National Birth Defects Preventin Network: Changesin the birth prevalence of selected birth defects after grainfortification with folic acid in the United States: findings froma multi-state population-based study. Birth Defects Res A ClinMol Teratol. 2005;73(10):679-689[Crossref]
  • [61] Hashmi SS, Waller DK, Langlois P, Canfield M, Hecht JT.Prevalence of nonsyndromic oral clefts in Texas: 1995-1999. AmJ Med Genet A. 2005;134(4):368-372
  • [62] Wong WY, Eskes TK, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, SpauwenPH, Steegers EA, Thomas CM, et al. onsyndromicorofacial clefts: association with maternal hyperhomocysteinemia.Teratol. 1999;60(5):253-257[Crossref]
  • [63] Munger RG, Sauberlich HE, Corcoran C, NepomucenoB, Daack-Hirsch S, Solon FS. Maternal vitamin B-6 and folatestatus and risk of oral cleft birth defects in the Philippines.Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(7):464-471[Crossref]
  • [64] Johansen AM, Lie RT, Wilcox AJ, Andersen LF, Drevon CA.Maternal dietary intake of vitamin A and risk of orofacialclefts: a population-based case-control study in Norway. Am JEpidemiol. 2008;167(10):164-170
  • [65] Hozyasz KK, Ruszczyńska A, Bulska E. Niskie stężenia cynku iwysokie stężenia miedzi w surowicy matek dzieci z izolowanymrozszczepem wargi i podniebienia. Wiad Lek. 2005;58(7–8):382-385
  • [66] Hozyasz KK, Kaczmarczyk M, Dudzik J, Bulska E, DudkiewiczZ, Szymanski M. Relation between the concentration ofzinc in maternal whole blood and the risk of an infantbeing born with an orofacial cleft. Br J Oral MaxillofacSurg. 2009;47(6):466-469
  • [67] Munger RG, Tamura T, Johnston KE, Feldkamp ML, PfisterR, Carey JC, et al. Plasma zinc concentrations of mothers andthe risk of oral clefts in their children in Utah. Birth Defects ResA Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85(2):151-155[Crossref]
  • [68] Tamura T, Munger RG, Corcoran C, Bacayao JY, NepomucenoB, Solon F. Plasma zinc concentrations of mothers and the riskof nonsyndromic oral clefts in their children: a case-controlstudy in the Philippines. Birth Defects Res A Clin MolTeratol. 2005;73(9):612-616[Crossref]
  • [69] Krapels IP, Rooij IA, Wevers RA, Zielhuis GA, SpauwenPH, Brussel W, et al. Myo-inositol, glucose and zincstatus as risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip with orwithout cleft palate in offspring: a case-control study.BJOG. 2004;111(7):661-668[Crossref]
  • [70] Huber JC Jr, Brender JD, Zheng Q, Sharkey JR, Vuong AM, ShindeMU, et al. National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Maternaldietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines andselected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study. NutrJ. 2013;12:34
  • [71] Johansen AM, Wilcox AJ, Lie RT, Andersen LF, Drevon CA.Maternal consumption of coffee and caffeine-containingbeverages and oral clefts: a population-based case-controlstudy in Norway. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169(10):1216-1222[Crossref]
  • [72] Collier SA, Browne ML, Rasmussen SA, Honein MA, NationalBirth Defects Prevention Study. Maternal caffeine intake duringpregnancy and orofacial clefts. Birth Defects Res A Clin MolTeratol. 2009;85(10):842-849[Crossref]
  • [73] Bille C, Olsen J, Vach W, Knudsen VK, Olsen SF, RasmussenK, et al. Oral clefts and life style factors -a case-cohortstudy based on prospective Danish data. Eur JEpidemiol. 2007;22(3):173-181[Crossref]
  • [74] Munsie JPW, Lin S, Browne ML, Campbell KA, Caton AR, BellEM, et al. Maternal bronchodilator use and the risk of orofacialclefts. Human Reprod. 2011;(11):3147-3154[Crossref]
  • [75] Marinucci L, Balloni S, Carinci F, Locci P, Pezzetti F, Bodo M.Diazepam effects on non-syndromic cleft lip with or withoutpalate: epidemiological studies, clinical findings, genes andextracellular matrix. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2011;10(1):23-33[Crossref]
  • [76] Holmes LB, Baldwin EJ, Smith CR, Habecker E, GlassmanL, Wong SL, et al. Increased frequency of isolated cleftpalate in infants exposed to lamotrigine during pregnancy.Neurol. 2008;70(22 Pt 2):2152-2158[Crossref]
  • [77] Puhó EH, Szunyogh M, Métneki J, Czeizel AE. Drug treatmentduring pregnancy and isolated orofacial clefts in hungary. CleftPalate Craniofac J. 2007;44(2):194-202
  • [78] Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Ma C, Werler MM, RasmussenSA, Lammer EJ, et al. Maternal corticosteroid use andorofacial clefts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197(6):1-7
  • [79] Park-Wyllie LY, Levine M.A, Holbrook A, Thabane L, AntoniouT, Yoong D, et al. Outcomes of dosage adjustments usedto manage antiretroviral drug interactions. Clin Infect Dis.2007;45(7):933-936[Crossref]
  • [80] Hviid A, Mølgaard-Nielsen D. Corticosteroid useduring pregnancy and risk of orofacial clefts.CMAJ. 2011;183(7):796-804[Crossref]
  • [81] Park-Wyllie L, Mazzotta P, Pastuszak A, Moretti ME, BeiqueL, Hunnisett L, et al. Birth defects after maternal exposure tocorticosteroids: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis ofepidemiological studies. Teratol. 2000;62(6):385-392
  • [82] Bay Bjørn AM1, Ehrenstein V, Hundborg HH, Nohr EA, SørensenHT, Nørgaard M. Use of Corticosteroids in Early Pregnancy isNot Associated With Risk of Oral Clefts and Other CongenitalMalformations in Offspring. Am J Ther. 2014;21(2):73-80
  • [83] Mølgaard-Nielsen D, Hviid A. Maternal use of antibiotics andthe risk of orofacial clefts: a nationwide cohort study. PharmacoepidemiolDrug Saf. 2012;21(3):246-253[Crossref]
  • [84] Lin KJ, Mitchell AA, Yau WP, Louik C, Hernández-Díaz S.Maternal exposure to amoxicillin and the risk of oral clefts.Epidemiol. 2012;23(5):699-705[Crossref]
  • [85] Cartsos VM,, Palaska PK, Zavras AI. Antiretroviral prophylaxisand the risk of cleft lip and palate: preliminary signal detectionin the food and drug administration’s adverse events reportingsystem database. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2012;49(1):118-121
  • [86] Albano JD, Tilson H. No evidence for increased risk of cleft lipor cleft palate among infants exposed to antiretroviral drugsduring pregnancy in the antiretroviral pregnancy registry. CleftPalate Craniofaci J. 2013;50(3):376-377
  • [87] Bianchi F, Cianciulli D, Pierini A, Seniori Costantini A.Congenital malformations and maternal occupation:a registry based case-control study. Occup EnvironMed. 1997;54(4):223-228[Crossref]
  • [88] García AM, Fletcher T, Benavides FG, Orts E. Parentalagricultural work and selected congenital malformations. Am JEpidemiol. 1999;149(1):64-74[Crossref]
  • [89] Lorente C, Cordier S, Bergeret A, de Walle HE, Goujard J, AyméS, et al. Occupational Exposure and Congenital MalformationWorking Group.: Maternal occupational risk factors for oralclefts. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000;26(2):137-145[Crossref]
  • [90] Wyszynski DF, Perandones C, Bennun RD. Attitudes towardprenatal diagnosis, termination of pregnancy, and reproductionby parents of children with nonsyndromic oral clefts inArgentina. Prenat Diagn. 2003;23(9):722-727[Crossref]
  • [91] Bianchi F, Pierini A, Romanelli AM, Protti AM, SignoriniS, Seniori Costantini A. Working mothers and the risk ofcongenital defects: the results of the EUROCAT registry inthe province of Florence. European Registry of CongenitalAnomalies and Twins. Epidemiol Prev. 1996;20(2-3):197-199
  • [92] García AM, González-Galarzo MC, Ronda E, Ballester F, EstarlichM, Guxens M, et al. Prevalence of exposure to occupationalrisks during pregnancy in Spain. Int J Public Health.2012;57(5):817-826[Crossref]
  • [93] Romitti PA, Herring AM, Dennis LK, Wong-Gibbons DL.Meta-analysis: pesticides and orofacial clefts.Cleft PalateCraniofac J. 2007;44(4):358-365
  • [94] Chevrier C, Dananche B, Bahuau M, Nelva A, Herman C,Francannet C, et al. Occupational exposure to organic solventmixtures during pregnancy and the risk of non-syndromicoralclefts. Occup Environ Med 2006;63(9):617–623[Crossref]
  • [95] Laumon B, Martin JL, Collet P, Bertucat I, Verney MP, Robert E.Exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy and oral clefts:a case-control study. Reprod Toxicol. 1996;10(1):15-19[Crossref]
  • [96] Lorente C, Cordier S, Goujard J, Aymé S, Bianchi F, Calzolari E,et al. Tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy and risk of oralclefts. Occupational Exposure and Congenital MalformationWorking Group. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(3):415-419
  • [97] Shaw GM, Nelson V, Todoroff K, Wasserman CR, NeutraRR. Maternal periconceptional use of electric bed-heatingdevices and risk for neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.Teratol. 1999;60(3):124-129[Crossref]
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.-psjd-doi-10_1515_med-2015-0027
Identifiers
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.