Epileptic seizure propagation from the second somatic sensory area to the fronto-medial region, by insular redistribution. A case report and a connectome description
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Introduction. The seizure propagation phenomenon by inducing remote symptoms brings several difficulties in finding the seizure onset and delineating the epileptic network which should be taken into consideration in epilepsy surgery. By demonstrating a difficult (MRI negative) epilepsy surgery case explored with invasive presurgical evaluation we highlight the importance to recognise the secondary sensory area and to explore the the parieto-opercular-insular-medial frontal network in certain cases. A further conclusion is the consideration of the redistributory role of the insula as a special structure in the cerebral connectome, having a role in epileptic network organisation.Aims. To support the role of the insula in the organisation of an opercular – medial frontal epileptic network and to confirm Penfield’s the “second somatic sensory leg area” by way of a case report. We try to give an up to date exploration of our patient’s remote epileptic seizures by way of a connectome.Methods. The epileptic disorder was studied with intensive video EEG monitoring and two times 3T MRI. Interictal FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) PET was also undertaken. Beside the scalp EEG and computerized frequency analysis, the evaluation was performed by invasive EEG with 2 grids and 2 strips and an insular deep electrode in addition. Electrical cortical stimulation and cortical mapping were also undertaken.Results. The video-EEG study revealed the complex seizure semiology. The left sided global somatosesensory aura in the leg, followed supplementary motor area manifestations represented a remote seizure. The seizure onset zone and the symptomatogenic zone were localised by the invasive electrophysiology. With the insular deep electrode we succeeded to explore the propagation of ictal activity to the insula and later to frontal medial surface. The PET, the negative 3T MRI results and the postprocessing morphometry confirmed the lesional origin and localised the epileptogenic area to the second somato-sensory field where a dysgenesis was located.Conclusions. By preoperative invasive video-EEG evaluation, the second somato-sensory leg area was delineated as the seizure onset zone. The resection of this area by IIb type cortical dysgenesis, resulted in a complete relief of the seizures. The invasive video-EEG revealed the peculiar role of the insula in the propagation of the epileptic seizure from the second sensory leg area to the ipsilateral fronto-medial supplemetary motor area. Our results, confirm, that the insula has a relay or node function on the parietal opercular-fronto-medial epileptic network. The connectome of the insula is a further additive of the scale-free features of the remote epileptic networks.
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