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2014 | 22 | 2 | 113-119

Article title

Ictal Forced Repetitive Swearing in Frontal Lobe Epilepsy: Case report and review of the literature


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Introduction. Dominant presentation of ictal forced repetitive swearing has been rarely addressed and could be misdiagnosed.Case report. We report a 45-year-old man with a long history of right frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) who developed forced repetitive swearing during hypermotor seizures. His seizures were refractory to different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Scalp video-EEG telemetry suggested a right frontal epileptic focus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in the right mesial frontal lobe. Intracranial implantation with video-EEG recordings confirmed seizures originating from the MRI lesion. Patient underwent right frontal lobe resection followed by seizure freedom in the last five years on a single AED. Neuropathology confirmed FCD type IIB.Discussion. The following aspects of the case are discussed: FLE and ictal vocalization, swearing, FLE and aggression. We emphasize the differences among ictal vocalisation, verbal automatism and ictal speech. We propose that ictal swearing might fit a verbal automatism definition.Conclusion. Ictal forced repetitive swearing can be a manifestation of hypermotor seizures in FLE and should not be misdiagnosed.









Physical description


1 - 12 - 2014
1 - 3 - 2015
27 - 8 - 2014
5 - 11 - 2014


  • Section of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine University of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada
  • Section of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine University of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada


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