Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2015 | 16 | 2 | 83-87

Article title

Performance Diagnostic in Cross-Country Skiing


Title variants

Languages of publication



Purpose. Recreational cross-country skiers can benefit from a performance diagnostic when planning a training program. The aim of this study was to establish a simple test protocol to measure endurance capacity and provide training recommendations. Methods. The relationship between endurance performance and cross-country skiing technique was assessed using two tests. First, a lactate threshold test whereby running speed was determined on a treadmill at 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration. Second, participants completed a variation of the Cooper test using skating technique on flat terrain to determine the distance covered in 12 min and maximum heart rate. Results. There was a correlative (r = 0.18 respectivelly R2 = 0.43) relationship of between the distance covered in the Cooper test and treadmill running speed at 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration. Conclusions. The two tests allow recreational athletes to rank themselves with regards to their endurance capacity within a population. The relationship between distance covered and maximum heart rate can indicate whether future training should focus on technical or physical improvement.










Physical description


1 - 6 - 2015
21 - 4 - 2015
24 - 6 - 2015
27 - 8 - 2015


  • Institute of Anatomy, Swiss Health & Performance Lab, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
  • Institute of Anatomy Swiss Health and Performance Lab University of Berne Baltzerstrasse 2 CH-3012 Berne, Switzerland
  • Institute of Anatomy, Swiss Health & Performance Lab, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland


  • 1. Angermann M., Lehmann C., Hoppeler H.H., Däpp C., Vogt M., Oberkörperergometrie: spezifische Leistungsdiagnostik für Langläufer und Nordisch-Kombinierer. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für „Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie“, 2003, 51 (4), 168-173.
  • 2. Huonker M., Sekundärprävention und Rehabilitation von Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen - Pathophysiologische Aspekte und Belastungssteuerung von körperlichem Training. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin, 2004, 55 (5), 118-123.
  • 3. Borg G., Anstrengungsempfinden und körperliche Aktivität. Deutsches Aerzteblatt, 2004, 101 (15), A-1016 / B-840 / C-821.
  • 4. Knechtle B., Bircher S., Limitierende Faktoren der Fettverbrennung. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für „Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie“, 2006, 54 (2), 51-56.
  • 5. Millet G.Y., Hoffman M.D., Candau R.B., Clifford P.S., Poling forces during roller skiing: effects of technique and speed. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998, 30 (11), 1645-1653.[Crossref]
  • 6. Mygind E., Larsson B., Klausen T., Evaluation of a specific test in cross-country skiing. J Sport Sci, 1991, 9 (3), 249-257, doi: 10.1080/02640419108729887.[Crossref]
  • 7. Robergs R.A., Quintana R., Parker D.L., Frankel C.C., Multiple variables explain the variability in the decrement in VO2max during acute hypobaric hypoxia. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998, 30 (6), 869-879.[Crossref]
  • 8. Wisloff U., Helgerud J., Evaluation of a new upper body ergometer for cross country skiers. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1998, 30 (8), 1314-1320.[Crossref]
  • 9. Steffny H., Das grosse Laufbuch. Südwestverlag, München 2008.
  • 10. Zintl F., Ausdauertraining: Grundlagen, Methoden, Trainingssteuerung (4 Aufl). BLV, Wien-Zürich 1997.
  • 11. Marti B., Laukkanen R., Held T., Beurteilung der Ausdauer aufgrund der VO2max: Standards des BASPO. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für „Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie”, 1999, 47 (4), 173-174.
  • 12. Farrell P.A., Wilmore J.H., Coyle E., Billing J., Costill D., Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1979, 11 (4), 338-344.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 13. Yoshida T., Udo M., Iwai K., Chida M., Ichioka M., Nakadomo F. et al., Significance of the contribution of aerobic and anaerobic components to several distance running performances in female athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1990, 60 (4), 249-253, doi: 10.1007/BF00379391.[Crossref]
  • 14. Weltmann A., The Blood Lactate Response to Exercise. Human Kinetics, Champaign 1995.
  • 15. Denis C., Fouquet R., Poty P., Geyssant A., Lacour J.R., Effects of 40 weeks of endurance training on the anaerobic threshold. Int J Sports Med, 1982, 3 (4), 208-214, doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1026089.[Crossref]
  • 16. Clénin G., Prädiktiver Wert von vier unterschiedlich aufwendigen Ausdauertests für die 15 km-Wettkampfleistung von Frauen und Männern mit ähnlich gutem Dauerleistungsvermögen. Inaugural-Dissertation, Medizinische Fakultät Universität Zürich, Zurich 1997.
  • 17. Sjoedin B., Jacobs I., Svedenhag J., Changes in the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and muscles enzymes after training at OBLA. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1982, 49 (1), 45-57, doi: 10.1007/BF00428962.[Crossref]
  • 18. Billat L.V., Use of Blood Lactate Measurements for Prediction of Exercise Performance and for Control of Training. Sports Med, 1996, 22 (3), 157-175, doi: 10.2165/00007256-199622030-00003.[Crossref]
  • 19. Bourdon P., Blood lactate transition thresholds: concepts and controversies. [In:] Gore C. (ed.), Physiological Tests for Elite Athletes. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2000, 50-65.
  • 20. Heck H., Laktat in der Leistungsdiagnostik. Hofmann, Schondorf 1990.
  • 21. Tschopp M., Held T., Villiger B., Marti B., Qualitätsstandards in der Ausdauerleistungsdiagnostik. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für „Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie“, 2001, 49 (2), 57-66.
  • 22. Duggan A., Tebbutt S.D., Blood lactate at 12 km/h and vOBLA as predictors of run performance in non-endurance athletes. Int J Sports Med, 1990, 11 (2), 111-115, doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1024773.[Crossref]
  • 23. Sjödin B., Jacobs I., Onset of blood lactate accumulation and marathon running performance. Int J Sports Med, 1981, 2 (1), 23-26, doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1034579.[Crossref]
  • 24. Held T., Marti B., Substantial influence of level of endurance capacity in the association of perceived exertion with blood lactate accumulation. Int J Sports Med, 1999, 20 (1), 34-39, doi: 10.1055/s-2007-971088[Crossref]
  • 25. Tschopp M., Manual Leistungsdiagnostik Ausdauer. Swiss Olympic Medical Center, Magglingen 2001
  • 26. Urhausen A., Coen B., Weiler B., Kindermann W., Individual anaerobic threshold and maximum lactate steady state. Int J Sports Med, 1993, 14 (3), 134-139, doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1021157.[Crossref]
  • 27. Held T., Steiner R., Hübner K., Tschopp M., Peltola K., Marti B., Selbst gewählte submaximale Laufgeschwindigkeiten als Prädiktoren des Dauerleistungsvermögens. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für „Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie“, 2000, 48 (2), 64-69.
  • 28. Cooper K.H., Aerobics. Bantam Books, New York 1968.
  • 29. Smith G.A., Nelson R.C., Feldman A., Rankinen J.L., Analysis of V1 skating technique of Olympic cross-country skiers. Int J Sports Biomech, 1989, 5, 185-207.
  • 30. Harriss D.J., Atkinson G., Ethical standards in sport and exercise science research: 2014 update. Int J Sports Med, 2013, 34 (12), 1025-1028, doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1358756.[Crossref]
  • 31. Gore C.J., Hahn A.G., Scroop G.C., Watson D.B., Norton K.I., Wood R.J. et al., Increased arterial desaturation in trained cyclists during maximal exercise at 580 m altitude. J Appl Physiol, 1996, 80 (6), 2204-2210.
  • 32. Gore C.J., Little S.C., Hahn A.G., Scroop G.C., Norton K.I., Bourdon P.C. et al., Reduced performance of male and female athletes at 580 m altitude. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1997, 75 (2), 136-143, doi: 10.1007/s004210050138.[Crossref]
  • 33. Fay L., Londeree B.R., Lafontaine T.P., Volek M.R., Physiological parameters related to distance running performance in female athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1989, 21 (3), 319-324. [Crossref]
  • 34. Foxdal P., Sjödin B., Sjödin A., Östman B., The Validity and Accuracy of Blood Lactate Measurements for Prediction of Maximal Endurance Running Capacity. Int J SportsMed, 1994,15 (2), 89-95, doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1021026.[Crossref]
  • 35. Hoppeler H., Howald H., Conley K., Lindstedt S.L., Claassen H., Vock P. et al., Endurance training in humans: Aerobic capacity and structure of skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol, 1985, 59 (2), 320-327.
  • 36. Hoppeler H., Baum O., Mueller M., Lurman G., Molekulare Mechanismen der Anpassungsfähigkeit der Skelettmuskulatur. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für „Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie“, 2011, 59 (1), 6-13.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.