The Sports Background, Personality, Att Itudes, and Social Competencies of Coaches and Assistant Coaches in the Just Soccer Program for Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities
Languages of publication
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to empirically analyze the sports background, personality dimensions, attitudes, and social competencies of adult head coaches and young assistant coaches involved in the German Einfach Fußball (Just Soccer) program, which promotes the participation of pupils with intellectual disabilities in soccer/sports and society. Methods. The study recruited 28 head coaches and 29 assistant coaches who completed a questionnaire battery of standardized instruments (NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Social Self-Efficacy) as well as self-developed instruments. Analysis of the data involved descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. A descriptive comparison of the assistant coaches with a normative sample of males aged 16-20 years was performed. Results. The head coaches were found with little soccer/sports experience with persons with disabilities prior to participation in the Just Soccer program. However, the majority were familiar with these persons through personal/vocational contacts. Overall, the head coaches were differentiated by formal coaching levels and playing backgrounds, with very few holding any additional formal qualifications in special education. The assistant coaches presented below average scores in the analyzed five personality dimensions when compared with the normative sample. Their attitudes and social competencies did not change during their 8-month involvement in Just Soccer. Conclusions. The findings highlight the important role of the coaching staff in the success of the Just Soccer program. Coaches involved in such activities should be familiarized with needs of people with disabilities, be stress-resistant, and possess a balanced set of personality traits. In addition, the results suggest that such individuals should be coaches/players from conventional soccer clubs instead of special school physical education teachers.
1 - 9 - 2014
10 - 7 - 2014
19 - 2 - 2014
6 - 2 - 2015
- Research Institute for Inclusion through Physical Activity and Sport, Frechen, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Institute for Inclusion through Physical Activity and Sport, Frechen, Germany
- Research Institute for Inclusion through Physical Activity and Sport, Frechen, Germany
- 1. Schliermann R., Participation of cognitive disabled children in the soccer-sport, for example the „Just Soccer“ program - Evaluation of structure parameters and participation satisfaction [in German]. In: Anneken V. (ed.), Inclusion through Sport- Research for people with disabilities [in German]. Strauss, Köln 2013, 65-82.
- 2. Schliermann R., Anneken V., Just soccer- program to encourage the participation in sport [in German]. Teilhabe, 2012, 51 (4), 176-181.
- 3. White R.W., Motivation reconsidered: the concept of competence. Psychol Rev, 1959, 66 (5), 297-333.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 4. Erpenbeck J., Rosenstiel L. (eds.), Manual of competence measurement [in German]. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart 2003.
- 5. Kanning U.P., Diagnostic of social competences [in German]. Hogrefe, Göttingen 2003.
- 6. Chelladurai P., Leadership. In: Singer R.N., Murphy M., Tennant L.K. (eds.), Handbook on research in sport psychology. McMillan, New York 1993, 647-671.
- 7. Horn T.S., Coaching effectiveness in the sport domain. In: Horn T.S. (ed.), Advances in sport psychology (2nd Edition). Human Kinetics, Champaign 2002, 309-354.
- 8. Smoll F.L., Smith R.E., Leadership behaviors in sport. A theoretical model and research paradigm. J Appl Soc Psychol, 1989, 19 (18), 1522-1551, doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1989. tb01462.x.[Crossref]
- 9. Cloerkes G., Sociology of people with disabilities [in German]. Winter, Heidelberg 2007.
- 10. Rosenberg M.J., Hovland C.L., Cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of attitudes. In: Rosenberg M.J., Hovland C.L., McGuire W.J., Abelson R.P., Brehm J.W. (eds.), Attitude Organization and Change: an analysis of consistency among attitude components. Yale University Press, New Haven 1960, 1-14.
- 11. Asendorpf J.B., Neyer F.J., Psychology of personality [in German]. Springer, Berlin 2012.[PubMed]
- 12. Riemer H.A., Multidimensional model of coach leadership. In: Jowett S., Lavallee D. (eds.), Social psychology in sport. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2007, 57-73.
- 13. Krampen G., Action-theoretical psychologyof personality [in German]. Hogrefe, Göttingen 2000.
- 14. Herrmann T., Textbook of empirical personality research [in German]. Hogrefe, Göttingen 1976.
- 15. Magnusson D., Endler N.S. (eds.), Personality at the crossroads: Current issues in interactional psychology. Erlbaum, Hillsdale 1977.
- 16. Stroebe W., Jonas K., Basics of attitude development and strategies of attitude-change [in German]. In: Stroebe W., Hewstone M., Stephenson G.M. (eds.), Social psychology [in German]. Springer, Berlin 1997, 253-289.
- 17. Borkenau P., Ostendorf F., NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI) by Costa and McCrae. Manual [in German]. Hogrefe, Göttingen 2008.
- 18. Costa P.T.Jr, McCrae R.R., Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa 1992.
- 19. Kunter M., Schümer G., Artelt C., Baumert J., Klieme E., Neubrand M. et al., PISA 2000. Documentation of the survey instruments [in German]. Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung, Berlin 2002.
- 20. Davis M.H., A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalogue of Selected Documents in Psychology, 1980, 10, 85. Available from http:// www.eckerd.edu/academics/psychology/files/Davis_1980.pdf.
- 21. Sherer M., Maddux J.E., Mercandante B., Prentice- Dunn S., Jacobs B., Rogers R.W., The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 1982, 51 (2), 663-671, doi: 10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.1993.[WoS][Crossref]
- 22. Cohen J., Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Erlbaum, Hillsdale 1988.
- 23. Ford P.R., Yates I., Williams A.M., An analysis of practice activities and instructional behaviours used by youth soccer coaches during practice: exploring the link between science and application. J Sports Sci, 2010, 28 (5), 483-495, doi: 10.1080/02640410903582750.[Crossref]
- 24. Partington M., Cushion C., An investigation of the practice activities and coaching behaviors of professional top-level youth soccer coaches. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2013,23(3), 374-382, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01383.x.[WoS][Crossref]
- 25. Williams A.M., Hodges N.J., Practice, instruction and skill acquisition in soccer: Challenging tradition. J Sports Sci, 2005,23(6), 637-650, doi: 10.1080/02640410400021328.[Crossref]
- 26. Fornefeld B., Basic knowledge Special education with intellectual disabled [in German]. Reinhardt, Stuttgart 2009.
- 27. Amelang M., Bartussek D., Differential psychology and personality research [in German]. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2001.
- 28. Özer D., Baran F., Aktop A., Nalbant S., Aglamis E., Hutzler Y., Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disability. Res Dev Disabil, 2012, 33 (1), 229-239, doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2011.09.011.[WoS][PubMed][Crossref]
- 29. Wilski M., Nadolska A., Dowling S., McConkey R., Hassan D., Personal development of participants in Special Olympics Unified Sports teams. Hum Mov, 2012, 13 (3), 271-279, doi: 10.2478/v10038-012-0032-3.[Crossref]
- 30. Schliermann R., Anneken V., Abel Th., Scheuer T., Froböse I., Sport of people with disabilities. Foundations, target groups, applications fields [in German]. Urban & Fischer, München 2014.
Publication order reference