Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2014 | 15 | 3 | 171-176

Article title

An Assessment of Exercise Tolerance in Normobaric Hypoxia of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1


Title variants

Languages of publication



Purpose. Physical activity is an integral part of the treatment of diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess aerobic capacity and cardiovascular-respiratory reactions to a single physical exercise with gradually increasing intensity in normobaric hypoxia in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Methods. The study was conducted on a sample of adults with Type 1 diabetes (GT1D, n = 13) and a randomly chosen healthy control (GK, n = 15). The study participants performed a progressive exercise test to exhaustion in normoxia (FiO2 ~ 20.90%) and 7 days later in normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 ~ 15.14%). At rest, during exercise, and after completion of the test blood was drawn and physiological indicators were monitored. Results. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of hypoxia and physical exercise on blood glucose concentrations (F = 6.1 p < 0.01). In GT1D , lower glucose levels were observed in normobaric hypoxia compared with baseline and post-exercise levels in normoxia (p < 0.05). A tendency to increased maximal oxygen uptake and significantly higher minute pulmonary ventilation was observed in both groups in response to exercise and hypoxia. Conclusions. Physical activity and hypoxia may effectively control glucose homeostasis and increase cardiorespiratory adaptation to exercise in Type 1 diabetics.










Physical description


1 - 9 - 2014
1 - 8 - 2014
17 - 9 - 2014
6 - 2 - 2015


  • Department of Physiological-Medical Sciences, the Jerzy Kukuczka University of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland
  • Department of Physiological-Medical Sciences, the Jerzy Kukuczka University of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland
  • Department of Physiological-Medical Sciences, the Jerzy Kukuczka University of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland


  • 1. American Diabetes Association, Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2011, 34 (Suppl. 1), S62-S69, doi: 10.2337/dc11-S062.[Crossref]
  • 2. Daneman D., Type 1 diabetes. Lancet, 2006, 367 (9513), 847-858, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68341-4.[Crossref]
  • 3. Layden B.T., Durai V., Lowe W.L. Jr., G-Protein-Coupled Receptors, Pancreatic Islets, and Diabetes. Nature Education, 2010, 3 (9), 13.
  • 4. Jahromi M.M, Eisenbarth G.S., Cellular and molecular pathogenesis of type 1A diabetes. Cell Mol Life Sci, 2007, 64 (7-8), 865-872, doi: 10.1007/s00018-007-6469-4.
  • 5. Bernardini A.L., Vanelli M., Chiari G., Iovane B., Gelmetti C., Vitale R. et al., Adherence to physical activity in young people with type 1 diabetes. Acta Biomedica: Atenei Parmensis, 2004, 75 (3), 153-157.
  • 6. Galler A., Lindau M., Ernert A., Thalemann R., Raile K., Associations between media consumption habits, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and glycemic control in children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2011, 34 (11), 2356-2359, doi: 10.2337/dc11-0838.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 7. Aman J., Skinner T.C., de Beaufort C.E., Swift P.G., Aanstoot H.J., Cameron F. et al., Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group on childhood Diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes, 2009, 10 (4), 234-239, doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448. 2008.00495.x.[WoS]
  • 8. Carral F., Gutierrez J.V., Ayala M.C., Garcia G., Aguilar M., Intense physical activity is associated with better metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2013, 101 (1), 45-49, doi: 10.1016/j.diabres. 2013.04.006.[Crossref]
  • 9. Chen S.R., Lee Y.J., Chiu H.W., Jeng C., Impact of physical activity on heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes. Child’s Nerv Syst, 2008, 24 (6), 741-747, doi: 10.1007/s00381-007-0499-y.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 10. Piana N., Maldonato A., Bloise D., Carboni L., Careddu G., Fraticelli E. et al., The narrative-autobiographical approach in the group education of adolescents with diabetes: A qualitative research on its effects. Patient Educ Couns, 2010, 80 (1), 56-63, doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2009.10.020.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 11. Schweiger B., Klingensmith G., Snell-Bergeon J.K., Physical activity in adolescents females with type 1 diabetes. Int J Pediatr, 2010, 24, 1-6, doi: 10.1155/2010/328318.[Crossref]
  • 12. Herbst A., Kordonouri O., Schwab K.O., Schmidt F., Holl R., Impact of physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2007, 30 (8), 2098-2100, doi: 10.2337/dc06-2636.[Crossref]
  • 13. Francescato M.P., Carrato S., Management of exerciseinduced glycemic imbalances in type 1. Curr Diabetes Rev, 2011, 7 (4), 253-263, doi: 10.2174/157339911796397875.[Crossref]
  • 14. Gusso S., Hofman P., Lalande S., Cutfield W., Robinson E., Baldi J.C., Impaired stroke volume and aerobic capacity in female adolescents with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia, 2008, 51 (7), 1317-1320, doi: 10.1007/s00125-008-1012-1.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 15. Kim C.H., The effects of hypoxia and exercise on physiological and cognitive performance. Doctoral Dissertation, Kent State University College and Graduate School of Education, Health, and Human Services, 2011 Ohio, USA. Availablefrom https://etd.ohiolink.edu/ap/10?0::NO:10:P10_ACCESSION_NUM:kent1311015088#abstract-files [data dostępu: 20.06.2014].
  • 16. Millet G.P., Roels B., Schmitt L., Woorons X., Richalet J.P., Combining hypoxic methods for peak performance. Sports Med, 2010, 40 (1), 1-25, doi: 10.2165/11317920-000000000-00000.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 17. Mackenzie R., Maxwell N., Castle P., Brickley G., Watt P., Acute hypoxia and exercise improve insulin sensitivity (S(I) (2*)) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2011, 27 (1), 94-101, doi: 10.1002/ dmrr.1156.[Crossref]
  • 18. Mackenzie R., Maxwell N., Castle P., Elliott B., Brickley G., Watt P., Intermittent exercise with and without hypoxia improves insulin sensitivity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2012, 97 (4), E546-E555, doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-2829.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 19. Mackenzie R., Elliott B., Maxwell N., Brickley G., Watt P., The effect of hypoxia and work intensity on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2012, 97 (1), 155-162, doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-1843.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 20. Cheng B., Kuipers H., Snyder A.C., Keizer H.A., Jeukendrup A., Hesselink M., A new approach for the determination of ventilator and lactate thresholds. Int J Sports Med, 1992, 13 (7), 518-522, doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1021309.[Crossref]
  • 21. American Diabetes Association, Executive summary: standards of medical care in diabetes - 2010. Diabetes Care, 2010, 33 (Suppl. 1), S4-S10, doi: 10.2337/dc10-S004.[Crossref]
  • 22. Burtscher M., Gatterer H., Szubski C., Pierantozzi E., Faulhaber M., Effects of interval hypoxia on exercise tolerance: special focus on patients with CAD or COPD. Sleep Breath, 2010, 14 (3), 209-220, doi: 10.1007/ s11325-009-0289-8.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 23. Wee J., Climstein M., Hypoxic training: Clinical benefits on cardiometabolic risk factors. J Sci Med Sport, 2013, Accepted article doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2013.10.247.[Crossref]
  • 24. Pialoux V., Hanly P.J., Foster G.E., Brugniaux J.V., Beaudin A.E., Hartmann S.E. et al., Effects of exposure to intermittent hypoxia on oxidative stress and acute hypoxic ventilatory response in humans. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009, 180 (10), 1002-1009, doi: 10.1164/ rccm.200905-0671OC.[Crossref][WoS]
  • 25. Erken H.A., Erken G., Colak R., Genc O., Exercise and DHA prevent the negative effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity. High Alt Med Biol, 2013, 14 (4), 360-366, doi: 10.1089/ham.2012.1125.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 26. Rusko H.K., Tikkanen H.O., Peltonen J.E., Oxygen manipulation as an ergogenic aid. Curr Sports Med Rep, 2003, 2 (4), 233-238.[Crossref]
  • 27. Suzuki K., Nakaji S., Yamada M., Totsuka M., Sato K., Sugawara K., Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics. Exerc Immunol Rev, 2002, 8 (6), 6-48.
  • 28. Peltonen J.E., Rusko H.K., Rantamaki J., Sweins K., Niittymaki S., Viitasalo J.T., Effects of oxygen fraction in inspired air on force production and electromyogram activity during ergometer rowing. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1997, 76 (6), 493-503.
  • 29. Vogiatzis I., Louvaris Z., Habazettl H., Athanasopoulos D., Andrianopoulos V., Cherouveim E. et al., Frontal cerebral cortex blood flow, oxygen delivery and oxygenation during normoxic and hypoxic exercise in athletes. J Physiol, 2011, 589 (16), 4027-4039, doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2011.210880. [Crossref]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.