Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2015 | 46 | 1 | 231-240

Article title

The Efficiency of a Visual Skills Training Program on Visual Search Performance


Title variants

Languages of publication



In this study, we conducted an experiment in which we analyzed the possibilities to develop visual skills by specifically targeted training of visual search. The aim of our study was to investigate whether, for how long and to what extent a training program for visual functions could improve visual search. The study involved 24 healthy students from the Szczecin University who were divided into two groups: experimental (12) and control (12). In addition to regular sports and recreational activities of the curriculum, the subjects of the experimental group also participated in 8-week long training with visual functions, 3 times a week for 45 min. The Signal Test of the Vienna Test System was performed four times: before entering the study, after first 4 weeks of the experiment, immediately after its completion and 4 weeks after the study terminated. The results of this experiment proved that an 8-week long perceptual training program significantly differentiated the plot of visual detecting time. For the visual detecting time changes, the first factor, Group, was significant as a main effect (F(1,22)=6.49, p<0.05) as well as the second factor, Training (F(3,66)=5.06, p<0.01). The interaction between the two factors (Group vs. Training) of perceptual training was F(3,66)=6.82 (p<0.001). Similarly, for the number of correct reactions, there was a main effect of a Group factor (F(1,22)=23.40, p<0.001), a main effect of a Training factor (F(3,66)=11.60, p<0.001) and a significant interaction between factors (Group vs. Training) (F(3,66)=10.33, p<0.001). Our study suggests that 8-week training of visual functions can improve visual search performance.










Physical description


1 - 6 - 2015
1 - 6 - 2015
10 - 7 - 2015


  • - Department of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.
  • - Department of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.
  • - Department of Ophthalmology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.
  • - Institute of Vision Training and Therapy, Warszawa, Poland
  • - Department of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.
  • - Department of Ophthalmology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.


  • Abernethy B. Expertise, visual search, and information pick-up in squash. Perception, 1990; 19(1): 63-77
  • Abernethy B, Wood JM. Do generalized visual training programmes for sport really work? An experimental investigation. J Sports Sci, 2001; 19(3): 203-222
  • Balasaheb T, Maman P, Sandhu JS. The impact of visual skills training program on batting performance in cricketers. Serb J Sports Sci, 2008; 2(1-4): 17-23
  • Castel AD, Pratt J, Drummond E. The effects of action video game experience on the time course of inhibition of return and the efficiency of visual search. Acta Psychol (Amst), 2005; 119(2): 217-230
  • Clark K, Cain MS, Adamo SH, Mitroff SR. Overcoming hurdles in translating visual search research between the lab and the field. In The Influence of Attention, Learning, and Motivation on Visual Search, Springer New York, 147-181; 2012
  • Chapman P, Underwood G, Roberts K. Visual search patterns in trained and untrained novice drivers. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav, 2002; 5(2): 157-167
  • Di Noto P, Uta S, DeSouza JF. Eye exercises enhance accuracy and letter recognition, but not reaction time, in a modified rapidserial visual presentation task. PLoS One, 2013; 8(3): e59244
  • Edlin JM, Lyle KB. The effect of repetitive saccade execution on the attention network test: enhancing executive function with a flick of the eyes. Brain Cogn, 2013; 81(3): 345-351
  • Erickson G. Sports vision: vision care for the enhancement of sports performance. St. Louis, Mo: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2007
  • Glimcher PW. Eye Movements. In: (Zigmond et al., eds.) Fundamental Neuroscience, 2nd ed. Academic Press: New York. 2002. Available at: ; accessed on: 26.05.2014
  • Green CS, Bavelier D. Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 2003; 423(6939): 534-537
  • Helsen WF, Starkes JL. A multidimensional approach to skilled perception and performance in sport. Appl Cognitive Psych,1999; 13(1): 1-27
  • Land MF, Hayhoe M. In what ways do eye movements contribute to everyday activities? Vision Res, 2001; 41(25-26): 3559-3565
  • Makovski T, Vázquez GA, Jiang YV. Visual learning in multiple-object tracking. PloS One, 2008; 3(5): e2228
  • Page J, Bates V, Long G, Dawes P, Tipton M. Beach lifeguards: visual search patterns, detection rates and the influence of experience. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 2011; 31(3): 216-224
  • Pambakian AL, Mannan SK, Hodgson TL, Kennard C. Saccadic visual search training: a treatment for patients with homonymous hemianopia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2004; 75(10): 1443-1448
  • Passamonti C, Bertini C, Làdavas E. Audio-visual stimulation improves oculomotor patterns in patients with hemianopia. Neuropsychologia, 2009; 47(2): 546-555
  • Paul M, Shukla G, Sandhu JS. The effect of vision training on performance in tennis players. Serb J Sports Sci, 2011; 5(1): 11-16
  • Piras A, Lobietti R, Squatrito SA. Study of saccadic eye movement dynamics in volleyball: comparison between athletes and non-athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2010; 50(1): 99-108
  • Piras A, Lobietti R, Squatrito S. Response time, visual search strategy, and anticipatory skills in volleyball players. J Ophthalmol, 2014; 189268. doi: 10.1155/2014/189268
  • Quevedo L, Solé J. Visual training programme applied to precision shooting. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 1995; 15(5): 519-523
  • Quevedo L, Solé J, Palmi J, Planas A, Soana C. Experimental study of visual training effects in shooting initiation. Clin Exp Optom, 1999; 82(1): 23-28
  • Reeves AG, Swenson RS. Disorders of the nervous system: a primer. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, Ill. 1981. Available at: ; accessed on: 26.05.2014
  • Rezaee M, Ghasemi A, Momeni M. Visual and athletic skills training enhance sport performance. Euro J Exp Bio, 2012; 2(6): 2243-2250
  • Schuhfried G. Wiener Test System (Vienna Test System). Mödling, Austria: Dr. Gernot Schuhfried GmbH; 2011
  • Schuster D, Rivera J, Sellers BC, Fiore SM, Jentsch F. Perceptual training for visual search. Ergonomics, 2013; 56(7): 1101-1115
  • Schwab S, Memmert D. The impact of a sports vision training program in youth field hockey players. J Sports Sci Med, 2012; 11(4): 624-631
  • Singer RN, Cauraugh JH, Chen D, Steinberg GM, Frehlich SG. Visual search, anticipation, and reactive comparisons between highly-skilled and beginning tennis players. J Appl Sport Psychol, 1996; 8(1): 9-26
  • Wang MJJ, Lin SC, Drury CG. Training for strategy in visual search. Int J Ind Ergon,1997; 20(2): 101-108
  • Williams AM, Davids K. Visual search strategy, selective attention, and expertise in soccer. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1998; 69(2): 111-128
  • Williams AM, Elliott D. Anxiety, expertise, and visual search strategy in karate. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 1999; 21(4): 362-375
  • Zwierko T. Differences in peripheral perception between athletes and nonathletes. J Hum Kinet, 2008; 19: 53-62
  • Zwierko T, Lubiński W, Lesiakowski P, Steciuk H, Piasecki L, Krzepota J. Does athletic training in volleyball modulate the components of visual evoked potentials? A preliminary investigation. J Sports Sci, 2014; 32(16): 1519-1528

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.