Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2015 | 46 | 1 | 19-27
Article title

The Reliability of Electromyographic Normalization Methods for Cycling Analyses

Title variants
Languages of publication
Electromyography (EMG) is normalized in relation to a reference maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) value. Different normalization techniques are available but the most reliable method for cycling movements is unknown. This study investigated the reliability of different normalization techniques for cycling analyses. Twenty-five male cyclists (age 24.13 ± 2.79 years, body height 176.22 ± 4.87 cm and body mass 67.23 ± 4.19 kg, BMI = 21.70 ± 2.60 kg·m−1) performed different normalization procedures on two occasions, within the same testing session. The rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were examined. Participants performed isometric normalizations (IMVC) using an isokinetic dynamometer. Five minutes of submaximal cycling (180 W) were also undertaken, allowing the mean (DMA) and peak (PDA) activation from each muscle to serve as reference values. Finally, a 10 s cycling sprint (MxDA) trial was undertaken and the highest activation from each muscle was used as the reference value. Differences between reference EMG amplitude, as a function of normalization technique and time, were examined using repeated measures ANOVAs. The testretest reliability of each technique was also examined using linear regression, intraclass correlations and Cronbach’s alpha. The results showed that EMG amplitude differed significantly between normalization techniques for all muscles, with the IMVC and MxDA methods demonstrating the highest amplitudes. The highest levels of reliability were observed for the PDA technique for all muscles; therefore, our results support the utilization of this method for cycling analyses.
Physical description
1 - 6 - 2015
1 - 6 - 2015
10 - 7 - 2015
  • Albertus-Kajee Y, Tucker R, Derman W, Lambert M. Alternative methods of normalising EMG during cycling. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 2010; 20: 1036-1043
  • Allison GT, Marshall RN, Singer KP. EMG signal amplitude normalization technique in stretch-shortening cycle movements. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 1993; 3: 236–244
  • Ball N, Scurr JC. Efficacy of current and novel electromyographic normalization methods for lower limb high-speed muscle actions. Eur J Sp Sci, 2011; 11: 447-456
  • Benoit DL, Lamontagne M, Cerulli G, Liti A. The clinical significance of electromyography normalisation techniques in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury during treadmill walking. Gait Posture, 2003; 18: 56–63
  • Bolgla LA, Uhl TL. Reliability of electromyographic normalization methods for evaluating the hip musculature. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 2007; 17: 102-111
  • Burden A, Bartlett R. Normalisation of EMG amplitude: an evaluation and comparison of old and new methods. Med Eng Phys, 1999; 21: 247–257
  • Burden AM, Trew M, Baltzopoulos V. Normalisation of gait EMGs: a re-examination. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 2003; 13: 519–32
  • Cram JR. The history of surface electromyography. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 2003; 29: 81-91
  • De Luca C. The use of surface electromyography in biomechanics. J App Biomech, 1997; 13: 135-63
  • Ekstrom RA, Soderberg GL, Donatelli RA. Normalization procedures using maximum voluntary isometric contractions for the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during surface EMG analysis. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 2005; 15: 418-428.
  • Freriks B, Hermens H, Disselhorst-Klug C, Rau G. The recommendations for sensors and sensor placement procedures for surface electromyography, In Hermens HJ. European recommendations for surface electromyography. Enschede Roessingh Research and Development,15–53; 1999
  • Harms-Ringdahl K, Ekholm J, Schuldt K, Linder J, Ericson M. Assessment of jet pilots’ upper trapezius load calibrated to maximal voluntary contraction and a standardized load. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 1996; 6: 67-72
  • Kasprisin JE, Grabiner MD. EMG variability during maximum voluntary isometric and anisometric contractions is reduced using spatial averaging. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 1998; 8: 45–50
  • Knutson LM, Sodberg GL, Ballantyne BT, Clarke WR. A study of various normalization procedures for within day electromyographic data. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 1994; 4: 47–59
  • Lehman GJ, McGill SM. The importance of normalization in the interpretation of surface electromyography: a proof of principle. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1999; 22: 444–446
  • Le Mond G, Kordis K. Greg Lemond’s Complete Book of Bicycling. Perigee Trade, 110-111; 1987
  • Miller AEJ, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, Sale DG. Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber characteristics. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1993; 66: 254-262
  • Netto KJ, Burnett AF. Reliability of normalisation methods for EMG analysis of neck muscles. WORK, 2006; 26: 123-130
  • Sauer J, Potter JJ, Weisshaar CL, Ploeg HL, Thelen DG. Influence of Gender, Power, and Hand Position on Pelvic Motion during Seated Cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2007; 39: 2204–2211
  • Sinclair J, Brooks D, Edmundson CJ, Hobbs SJ. The efficacy of EMG MVC normalization techniques for running analyses. J Biomech, 2012; 41: 621-623
  • Winter DA. EMG interpretation, In Kumar S, Mital A. Electromyography in ergonomics, Taylor & Francis, 109-25; 1996
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.