The aim of this study was to examine the association between sports participation and sedentary behavior during school recess among Brazilian adolescents. This study included 2,243 adolescents aged 13-18 years (16.2 ± 1.1), 62.2% females and 37.8% males, enrolled in public high schools in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Sedentary behavior during school recess and sport participation was self-reported. Several factors were examined, including sex, age, skin color, socioeconomic status, maternal education and physical activity level. Sixty percent of adolescents had sedentary behavior during school recess and 57.7% of adolescents reported that they did not participate in any team sport. Additionally, adolescents who did not practice any team sport were 40% more likely (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8) to be sedentary during school recess compared to those who participated in two or more team sports. It is recommended that schools encourage students to engage in sports activities and promote more physical activity during school recess to reduce the sedentary behavior and increase physical activity levels in youth.