Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2015 | 22 | 1 | 125-139
Article title

Metals Uptake by Wastewater Irrigated Vegetables and their Daily Dietary Intake in Peshawar, Pakistan / Pobieranie Metali Przez Warzywa Nawadniane Ściekami I Ich Dzienne Stężenie W Diecie Ludności Peszawaru, Pakistan

Title variants
Languages of publication
Vegetables are important source of nutrients for human body. Wastewater irrigation may lead to contamination of these vegetables and cause possible health risk. In the present study impact of waste water irrigation on metals uptake (Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb) by five commonly consumed vegetables (radish, cabbage, lettuce, cauliflower and spinach) grown in the suburbs of Peshawar were investigated using AAS (Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer). The uptake and accumulation of metals for vegetables irrigated with wastewater were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than tube well irrigated vegetables and permissible limits of WHO/FAO. Among the edible parts of vegetables maximum accumulation of Mn, Pb and Cd occurred in radish followed by Ni and Fe in spinach while Cr and Zn were high in cauliflower and cabbage. The estimated daily intake of metals (DIM) revealed that at present the consumption of studied vegetables were under the tolerable limits of (US-EPA, IRIS), however intake of metals in waste water irrigated vegetables were significantly high and can cause health hazards in the long run
Warzywa są ważnym źródłem składników odżywczych dla organizmu człowieka. Nawadnianie ściekami może prowadzić do zanieczyszczenia tych warzyw i powodować zagrożenie dla zdrowia. Zbadano wpływ nawadniania roślin ściekami na pobieranie metali (Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cd, Cr i Pb) przez pięć powszechnie spożywanych warzyw (rzodkiewka, kapusta, sałata, kalafior i szpinak), uprawianych na przedmieściach Peszawaru. Stężenia metali oznaczono za pomocą AAS (atomowej spektrometrii absorpcyjnej). Pobieranie i akumulacja metali w warzywach nawadnianych ściekami były istotnie (p < 0,05) wyższe niż dopuszczalne granice podawane przez WHO/FAO. Wśród części jadalnych warzyw maksymalna akumulacja Mn, Pb i Cd wystąpiła w rzodkiewce, Ni i Fe w szpinaku, natomiast Cr i Zn w kalafiorze i kapuście. Oszacowane dzienne stężenie metali w diecie ludności wykazało, że obecna ich ilość w badanych warzywach mieściła się w dopuszczalnych granicach (US-EPA, IRIS), jednak stężenia metali w warzywach nawadnianych ściekami były wysokie, co może powodować zagrożenie dla zdrowia w dłuższym okresie
Physical description
1 - 3 - 2015
18 - 4 - 2015
  • Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan / College of Food Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. China
  • College of Food Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. China / Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070, P.R. China
  • The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan / College of Food Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. China
  • College of Food Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. China
  • College of Food Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. China
  • The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • [1] Bean H, Schuler C, Leggett RE, Levin RM. Antioxidant levels of common fruits, vegetables and juices vs. protective activity against in vitro ischemia/ reperfusion. Int Urol Nephrol. 2010;42:409-415. DOI: 10.1007/s11255-009-9639-5.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [2] Chien LW, Han BC, Hsu CS, Jiang CB, You HJ, Shieh MJ, et al. Analysis of the health risk of exposure to breast milk mercury in infants in Taiwan. Chemosphere. 2006;64:79-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.059.[Crossref]
  • [3] Gupta N, Khan DK, Santra SC. An assessment of heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in wastewater-irrigated areas of Titagarh, West Bengal, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;80:115-118. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-007-9327-z. Epub 2007 Dec 29.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [4] Dere C, Lamy I, van Oort F, Baize D, Cornu S. Trace metal inputs reconstitution and migration assessment in a sandy Luvisol after 100 years of massive irrigation with raw wastewaters. Comptes Rendus Geosci. 2006;338(8):565-573. DOI: 10.1016/j.crte.2006.02.006.[Crossref]
  • [5] Ingwersen J, Streck T. Modeling the environmental fate of cadmium in a large wastewater irrigation area. J Envir Quality. 2006;35(5):1702-1714. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2005.0412.[Crossref]
  • [6] Singh S, Kumar M. Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in peri-urban Delhi. Environ Monit Asses. 2006;120(1-3):71-79. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-005-9050-3.[Crossref]
  • [7] Jan FA, Ishaq M, Khan S, Ihsanullah I, Ahmad I, Shakirullah M. A comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (lower Dir). J Hazard Mat. 2010;179:612-621. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.047.[Crossref]
  • [8] Li PJ, Wang X, Allinson G, Li XJ, Xiong XZ. Risk assessment of heavy metals in soil previously irrigated with industrial wastewater in Shenyang, China. J Hazard Mat. 2009;161(1):516-521. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.03.130.[Crossref]
  • [9] Arora M, Kiran B, Rani S, Rani A, Kaur B, Mitta N. Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables irrigated with water from different sources. Food Chem. 2008;111:811-815. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.049.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [10] Noor-ul-Amin, Hussain A, Alamzeb S, Begum S. Accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables irrigated with waste water and their daily intake to adults and children, District Mardan, Pakistan. Food Chem. 2013;136:1515-1523. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.058.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [11] Angin I, Yaganoglu AV. Effects of sewage sludge application on yield, yield parameters and heavy metal content of barley grown under arid climatic conditions. Intr J Agric Biology. 2012;14(5):811-815.
  • [12] Liu WH, Zhao JZ, Ouyang ZY, Soderlund L, Liu GH. Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Envir Int. 2005;31(6):805-812. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2005.05.042.[Crossref]
  • [13] Muchuweti M, Birkett JW, Chinyanga E, Zvauya R, Scrimshaw MD. Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: implications for human health. Agric Ecosyst Envir. 2006;112(1):41-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2005.04.028.[Crossref]
  • [14] Ikeda M, Zhang ZW, Shimbo S, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Moon CS, et al. Urban population exposure to lead and cadmium in east and south-east Asia. Sci Total Environ. 2000;249:373-384. DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00527-6.[Crossref]
  • [15] Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MDC, Egwurugwu JN. Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int J Phys Sci. 2007;2(5):112-118.
  • [16] Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng YM, Huang YZ, Zhu YG. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing. China Environ Pollut. 2008;152:686-692. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.056.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [17] Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng YM, Huang YZ, Zhu YG. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ Pollut. 2008;152:686-692. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.056.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [18] Nasreddine L, Parent-Massin D. Food contamination by metals and pesticides in the European Union. Should we worry? Toxicol Lett. 2002;127:29-41. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00480-5.[Crossref]
  • [19] Turkdogan MK, Fevzi K, Kazim K, Ilyas T, Ismail U. Heavy metals in soil, vegetables and fruits in the endemic upper gastrointestinal cancer region of Turkey. Environ Toxic Pharm. 2003;13:175-179. DOI: 10.1016/S1382-6689(02)00156-4.[Crossref]
  • [20] Khan S, Rehman S, Khan AZ, Khan MA, Shah MT. Soil and vegetables enrichment with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan. Ecot Environ Safety. 2010;73:1820-1827. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.08.016.[Crossref][WoS]
  • [21] Yang Q, Xu Y, Liu S, He J, Long F. Concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in market vegetables in Chongqing, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:1664-1669. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.05.006.[Crossref]
  • [22] Gebrekidan A, Weldegebriel Y, Hadera A, Bruggen BV. Toxicological assessment of heavy metals accumulated in vegetables and fruits grown in Ginfel River near Sheba Tannery, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;95:171-178. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.05.035.[Crossref]
  • [23] Luo X, Yu S, Zhu Y, Li X. Trace metal contamination in urban soils of China. Sci Total Environ. 2012;421-422:17-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.04.020.[Crossref]
  • [24] Khan S, Rehman S, Khan AZ, Khan MA, Shah T. Soil and vegetables enrichment with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan. Ecot Environ Saf. 2010;73:1820-1827. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.08.016.[Crossref]
  • [25] Jamali MK, Kazi TG, Arain MB, Afridi HI. Heavy metal contents of vegetables grown in soil, irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Pakistan, using ultrasonic-assisted pseudo-digestion. Agron Crop Sci. 2007;193(3):218-228. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-037X.2007.00261.x.[Crossref][WoS]
  • [26] Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall F. Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2007;66(2):258-266. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.11.007.[Crossref]
  • [27] Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabu K, Singh AK. Long term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and ground water’a case study. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2005;109(3): 310-322. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2005.02.025.[Crossref]
  • [28] Chen TB, Zheng YM, Chen H, Wu HT, Zhou JL, Luo JF. Arsenic accumulation in soils for different land use types in Beijing. Geograph Res. 2005;24:229-235.
  • [29] Ravet K, Touraine B, Boucherez J, Briat JF, Gaymard F. Cellier F. Ferritins control interaction between iron homeostasis and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2009;57(3):400-412. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03698.x.[Crossref]
  • [30] WHO. Cadmium Environmental Health Criteria. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1990;134.
  • [31] Farooq M, Anwar F, Rashid U. Appraisal of heavy metal contents in different vegetables grown in the vicinity of an industrial area. Pak J Bot. 2008;40:2099-2106.
  • [32] Chary NS, Kamala CT, Raj DSS. Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotox Environ Saf. 2008;69:513-524. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.04.013.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [33] FAO/WHO. Food standard program, Codex Alimentarius Commission. Vol. 17, 1st edn. 2003.
  • [34] Demirezen D, Aksoy A. Heavy metal levels in vegetables in Turkey are within safe limits for Cu, Zn, Ni and exceeded for Cd and Pb. Food Qualit. 2006;29:252-265. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4557.2006.00072.x.[Crossref]
  • [35] Al Jassir MS, Shaker A, Khaliq MA. Deposition of heavy metals on green leafy vegetables sold on roadsides of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabea. B Environ Contam Toxicol. 2005;75:1020-1027. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-005-0851-4. [Crossref]
  • [36] Zheng N, Wang Q, Zhang XW, Zheng D, Zhang Z, Zhang S. Population health risk due to dietary intake of heavy metals in the industrial area of Huludao City, China. Sci Total Environ. 2007;387(1-3):96-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.07.044.[Crossref][WoS]
  • [37] Nagajyoti PC, Lee KD, Sreekanth TM. Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environ Chem Lett. 2010;8:199-216. DOI 10.1007/s10311-010-0297-8.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [38] Pasha Q, Malik SA, Shaheen N, Shah MH. Investigation of trace metals in the blood plasma and scalp hair of gastrointestinal cancer patients in comparison with controls. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2010;41:531-539. DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2010.01.010.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [39] Khan SA, Din ZU, Ihsanullah, Zubair A. Levels of selected heavy metals in drinking water of Peshawar city. Int J Sci Nature. 2011;2:648-652.
  • [40] Alexander PD, Alloway BJ, Dourado AM. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables. Environ Pollut. 2006;144:736-745. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.03.001.[Crossref]
  • [41] Zakir SN, Ihsanullah I, Shah MT, Iqbal Z, Ahmad A. Comparison of heavy and trace metals levels in soil of Peshawar basin at different time intervals. J Chem Soc Pak. 2009;31:246-256.
  • [42] Bo S, Mei L, Tongbin C, Yuanming Z, Yunfeng X, Ding G. Assessing the health risk of heavy metals in vegetables to the general population in Beijing, China. J Environ Sci 2009;21:1702-1709. DOI: 10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62476-6.[WoS][Crossref]
  • [43] Ferri R, Donna F, Smith DR, Guazzetti S, Zacco A. Heavy Metals in Soil and Salad in the Proximity of Historical Ferroalloy Emission. J Environ Prot. 2012;3:374-385. DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.35047.[Crossref]
  • [44] Salvatore M, Carratù G, Carafa AM. Assessment of heavy metals transfer from a moderately polluted soil into the edible parts of vegetables. J Food Agric Environ. 2009;7:683-688.
  • [45] Collins RN, Kinsela AS. Pedogenic factors and measurements of the plant uptake of cobalt. Plant Soil. 2011;339:499-512. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-010-0584-y. [Crossref][WoS]
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.