Sports as a preventive measure of at-risk behavior among urban youth: a presentation of the “Sports 2014 – Multifactorial Environmental Model”
Languages of publication
The objective of this paper was to present an original project titled “Sports 2014 – Multifactorial Environmental Model”, designed to reinforce positive behavior and create a sense of community among urban youth. It evolved together with the subsequent phases of an urban health promotion program that began in 1994 in Wrocław, Poland. However, the basis of this model was in creating a health promotion initiative that included elements of the Mandala model of health, an ecological model, and the ‘Your Neighborhood’s Coach’ health promotion and at-risk prevention program, begun in 2003 by the Sports Department of the City of Wrocław and continued to this day. This type of initiative was designed to include measures typical of a prevention program while also promoting an active lifestyle through constructive leisure activities. Its guiding philosophy was the ‘get involved’ rather than ‘dissuade from’ approach, which has found popularity in programs of a similar nature across the world. The presented “Multifactorial Environmental Model” is addressed to active counselors, coaches, psychologists, health promotion figureheads, and policymakers whose goal is to reduce negative and anti-social behavior in today’s youth. It should also find value among the pedagogical community of physical education institutions, as the presented work may serve as a source of experience when deciding on any significant changes in the education of future physical education teachers, coaches, and recreation instructors working with adolescents.
19 - 3 - 2015
- 1. Antonovsky A. (1987) Unraveling the mystery of Health. How people manage stress and stay well. Jassey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco–London.
- 2. Bandura A., R. H. Walters (1959) Adolescent Aggression. Ronald Press, New York.
- 3. Bishop G..D. (1994) Health psychology: Integrating mind and body. Allyn and Bacon, Boston.
- 4. Blum R.W. (1988) Healthy youth development as a model for youth health promotion. Journal of Adolescent Health, 22(5): 368-375.
- 5. Boutilier M., R. Mason, I. Rootman (1997) Community action and reflective practice in health promotion research. Health Promotion International, 12(1): 69-77.
- 6. Bradley B.S., J. Selby (2004) The ‘Voices’ project: Capacity building in community development for youth at risk. Journal of Health Psychology, 9(2): 197-212.
- 7. Carroll G.B., D.M.C. Hébert, J.M. Roy (1999) Youth strategies in violence prevention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 25: 7–13.
- 8. Downie R., C. Tannahill, A. Tannahill (1996) Health Promotion, Models and Values. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- 9. Dryfoos J.G. (1990) Adolescents at-risk: Prevalence and prevention. Oxford University Press, New York.
- 10. Dufy E. (1998) What is Prevention? Wisconsin Prevention Network, Wisconsin.
- 11. Durlak J.A., A.M. Wells (1997) Primary prevention programs for children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25: 115-152.
- 12. Erikson E.H. (1993) Childhood and society. Norton, New York.
- 13. Goldstein A.P., B. Glick (1994) Aggression Replacement Training: Curriculum and Evaluation. Simulation and Gaming, 25(1): 9-26.
- 14. Green L.W., M.W. Kreuter (1991) Health Promotion Planning – an Educational and Environmental Approach, Mayfield Publ. Company, Toronto–London.
- 15. Grossmann R., K. Scala (1993) Health promotion and organisational development: developing settings for health. World Health Organization, Wien.
- 16. Hancock T. (1990) The Mandala of Health: a Model of the Human Ecosystem. In: R. Anderson and I Kickbusch (eds.) Health promotion, a Resource Book. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, pp. 129-138.
- 17. Hancock T. (1993) Health, human development and the community ecosystem: Three ecological models. Health Promotion International, 8: 41-47.
- 18. Hartmann D., D.Wheelock (2002) Sport as prevention? Minneapolis’ experiment with late-night basketball, CURA [Center for Urban and Regional Affairs]. Reporter, 32(3): 13-17.
- 19. Hellison D. (1995) Teaching responsibility through physical activity. Human Kinetics, Champaign.
- 20. Kulmatycki L., J. Supiński (2005) A comprehensive model of a prevention program of deviant behavior among sports fans [in Polish]. In: J. Supiński (ed.) Agresja a kultura fizyczna. Studia i Monografie AWF we Wrocławiu, 79: 165-178.
- 21. L’Abate L. (1990) Building family competence: primary and secondary prevention strategies. Sage Publications, London.
- 22. Perwin L. (1989) Personality. Theory of Research. Guilford Press, New York.
- 23. Surynt A., L. Kulmatycki (2009) Activities for the local community - the level of satisfaction and the assessment of sport and recreation activities of Wroclaw program “Community Sports Coach” concerning health promotion and addiction prevention. Zdrowie Publiczne, 119(4): 372-377.
- 24. Surynt A., L. Kulmatycki (2011) Health and addiction prevention program “Community Sports Coach” and pathological behavior of Wroclaw youth and children in 2003–2008 years. In: Z. Kubińska (ed.) Contemporary public health issues. Państwowa Szkoła Wyższa im. Papieża Jana Pawła II, Biała Podlaska, pp. 239-257.
- 25. Weiss M.R., C.P. Stuntz (2004) A little friendly competition: Peer relationships and psychosocial development in youth sports and physical activity contexts. In: M.R.Weiss (ed.) Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective, Fitness Information Technology, Morgantown, pp. 165-196.
- 26. Woynarowska B. (2007) Health education [in Polish]. PWN, Warszawa.
Publication order reference