Recommendations for Fetal Echocardiography in Singleton Pregnancy in 2015
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The first recommendations and guidelines for physicians training in fetal echocardiography (FE) were created in 1990 and later on up-dated by multiple medical associations and journals in Europe and the United States. This time advanced fetal cardiac ultrasound recommendations focused more on the organizational and logistical aspects of FE, to better define the fetal echo guidelines for practitioners in tertiary centers. Underlined is FE in 3rd trimester, with special attention to the direction of flow across the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus.AHA classification of heart defects in prenatal cardiology into seven major groups (from 2014) is presented as well as the Polish classification into four groups (from 2012) related to the urgency of required time to postnatal treatment/intervention based on FE findings in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.Current definition of fetal cardiologist in 2015 is also presented.
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- Department of Prenatal Cardiology, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland
- Department of Diagnoses and Prevention Fetal Malformations Medical University of Lodz, Poland
- Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California USA
- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, USA
- Department of Prenatal Cardiology, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Institute of Health Sciences. The State School of Higher Professional Education in Plock, Poland
- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
- Department of Pediatric Cardiology, The Fetal Heart Program, Colorado Fetal Care Center, Colorado Institute for Maternal Fetal Health, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA
- Pediatric Cardiology Associates, St Petersburg, FL, USA
- Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, University Bonn Medical School, Bonn, Germany
- Dept Obstetrics and Gynecology Università di Roma "Tor Vergata", Roma, Italy
- Department of Congenital Heart Disease, Evelina London Children's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center Tel-Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
- Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
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