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2015 | 5 | 2 | 28-34

Article title

Recommendations for Fetal Echocardiography in Singleton Pregnancy in 2015


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The first recommendations and guidelines for physicians training in fetal echocardiography (FE) were created in 1990 and later on up-dated by multiple medical associations and journals in Europe and the United States. This time advanced fetal cardiac ultrasound recommendations focused more on the organizational and logistical aspects of FE, to better define the fetal echo guidelines for practitioners in tertiary centers. Underlined is FE in 3rd trimester, with special attention to the direction of flow across the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus.AHA classification of heart defects in prenatal cardiology into seven major groups (from 2014) is presented as well as the Polish classification into four groups (from 2012) related to the urgency of required time to postnatal treatment/intervention based on FE findings in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.Current definition of fetal cardiologist in 2015 is also presented.









Physical description


1 - 6 - 2015
14 - 6 - 2015
2 - 7 - 2015
30 - 12 - 2015


  • Department of Prenatal Cardiology, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland
  • Department of Diagnoses and Prevention Fetal Malformations Medical University of Lodz, Poland
  • Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California USA
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, USA
  • Department of Prenatal Cardiology, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland
  • Institute of Health Sciences. The State School of Higher Professional Education in Plock, Poland
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  • Department of Pediatric Cardiology, The Fetal Heart Program, Colorado Fetal Care Center, Colorado Institute for Maternal Fetal Health, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA
  • Pediatric Cardiology Associates, St Petersburg, FL, USA
  • Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, University Bonn Medical School, Bonn, Germany
  • Dept Obstetrics and Gynecology Università di Roma "Tor Vergata", Roma, Italy
  • Department of Congenital Heart Disease, Evelina London Children's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center Tel-Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
  • Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.


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  • 2. Rychik J, Ayres N, Cuneo B, Gotteiner N, Hornberger L, Spevak F. Van Der Veld M.: American Society of Echocardiography Guidelines and Standards for Performance of the Fetal Echocardiogram. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2004,17:803-10[Crossref]
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  • 4. Respondek-Liberska M, Dangel J, Włoch A.: Certyficate for Basic Fetal Heart Evaluation Section of Echocardiography and Prenatal Cardiology Polish Ultrasound, Ultrasonografia 2006, 25:82-86
  • 5. Respondek-Liberska M, Dangel J, Włoch A.: Certificate for Echocardiography Fetal Heart Exam (advanced level). Section of Echocardiography and Prenatal Cardiology Polish Ultrasound. Ultrasonografia 2006,25:87-90
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  • 8. Wood D, Respondek-Liberska M, Puerto B, Weiner S.: Perinatal echocardiography: Protocols for evaluating the fetal and neonatal heart . Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 2009,37:5-11[WoS][Crossref]
  • 9. Slodki M, Respondek-Liberska M.: Proposal of screening fetal heart examination form granted by Polish Ministry of Health Program Kardio-Prenatal 2008. Ginekol Pol. 2009,80:466-470
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  • 11. Benacerraf BR.: American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. AIUM practice guideline for the performance of obstetric ultrasound examinations. J Ultrasound Med 2010,29:157-166.
  • 12. Sklansky M.: Current guidelines for fetal echocardiography: time to raise the bar. J Ultrasound Med 2011,30:284-286
  • 13. ISUOG practice guidelines (updated): sonographic screening examination of the fetal heart. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013,41:348-359[PubMed]
  • 14. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. AIUM practice guideline for the performance of obstetric ultrasound examinations. J Ultrasound Med 2013,32:1083-1101
  • 15. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. AIUM practice guideline for the performance of fetal echocardiography. J Ultrasound Med 2013,32:1067-1082
  • 16. Donofrio MT, Moon-Grady AJ, Hornberger LK, Copel JA, Sklansky MS, Abuhamad A, Cuneo BF, Huhta JC, Jonas RA, Krishnan A, Lacey S, Lee W, Michelfelder EC, Rempel RN, Silverman NH, Spray TL, Strasburger JF, Tworetzky W, Rychik J.: Diagnosis and Treatment of Fetal Cardiac Disease A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2014,129:2183-2242[Crossref]
  • 17. Davey BT, Donofrio MT, Moon-Grady AJ, Fifer CG, Cuneo B, Falkansammer CB, Szwast AL, Rychik J.: Development and Validation of a Fetal Cardiovascular Disease Severity Scale, Pediatr Cardiol, 2014,18.
  • 18. Słodki M.: Opracowanie modelu opieki nad ciężarną z wrodzoną wadą serca u płodu na podstawie nowego prenatalnego podziału wad serca [Prenatal and perinatal management for pregnant women with fetal cardiac defects based on new prenatal cardiac anomalies classification]. Habilitation thesis Medical University Łódź, PWSZ Plock 2012
  • 19. Respondek-Liberska M.: Atlas wad serca u płodu [Atlas of fetal congenital heart disease]. Łódź 2011, ADI ART
  • 20. Donofrio MT, Levy RJ, Schuette JJ, Skurow-Todd K, Sten MB, Stallings C, Pike JI, Krishnan A, Ratnayaka K, Sinha P, duPlessis AJ, Downing DS, Fries MI, Berger JT.: Specialized delivery room planning for fetuses with critical congenital heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2013,111:737-47.[WoS][Crossref]
  • 21. Pruetz JD, Carroll C, Trento LU, Chang RK, Detterich J, Miller DA, Sklansky M.: Outcomes of critical congenital heart disease requiring emergent neonatal cardiac intervention. Prenat Diagn. 2014,34:1127-32.
  • 22. Zielinsky P. Constriction of fetal ductus arteriosus and maternal intake of polyphenol-rich foods. Prenat Cardio. 2014,4(4):6-18.
  • 23. Respondek Liberska M. Fetal thymus - review. Prenat Cardio. 2014, 4(1), 9-12.

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